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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The vesitbular system gives
A sense of balance
The number of compressed or rarefied patches of air that pass by our ears each second
units for frequency in cycles per second
Whether a sound has a high or low tone which is determined by frequency
The difference in pressure between compressed and rarefied patches of air
Another name for the eardrum
Tympanic membrane
Entrance into the internal ear
Auditory canal
Smallest bones of the body
Once a neural response to sound is generated in the inner ear, the signal is transferred to and processed by
A series of nuclei in the brain stem
Output from nuclei is sent
To relay in the thalamus, the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
MGN projects to
Primary auditory cortex (A1)
The A1 is located where
In the temporal lobe
The outer ear
Funnels sound to the middle ear
In the middle ear
Variations in air pressure are converted into movements of the ossicles
Three ossicles in the tympanic membrane
Malleus, incus and stapes
In the cochlea, the three fluid filled chambers are
The scala vestibuli, the scala media, and the scala tympani
Organ of corti contains
Auditory receptor neurons (hair cells)
1. The fluid in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani
2. cerebral spinal fluid
3. low K+, high Na+ concentrations
Filled in the scala media
Stria Vascularis
1. Active transport processes of endolymph take place here. 2. Reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium against their concentration gradient
Basilar membrane has two structural properties that determine the way it responds to sound
1. Membrane is wider at apex than at base
2. The stiffness of the membrane decreases from the base to apex
Von Bekesy determined that the movement of the endolymph makes
1.The basilar membrane bend near its base,
2. start a base that propogates toward the apex called a traveling wave
Hair cells are located in
The organ of Corti
Auditory receptors are
The hair cells
Hair cells form synapses on neurons whose cell bodies are located
In the spiral ganglion
Depolarization of a hair cell ion channels happen when
TRPAI channels on sterocilia tips are opened when the tiplinks joining the stereo cilia are stretched
The entry of K+ depolarizes the hair cell, which opens
Voltage gated calcium channels
Incoming Ca2+ leads to the release of
Neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles which then diffuse to the postynaptic neurite from the spiral ganglion
The auditory nerve consists of the axons of neurons whose cell bodies are located
In the spiral ganglion
Spiral Ganglion is the first in the auditory pathways to
1. Fire action potentials
2. provide all the auditory information sent to the brain
Given the outer hair cells far outnumber the inner hair cells it seems paradoxical that
Most of the cochlear output is derived from the inner hair cells
Outer hair cells play an important role in
Sound transduction
Cochlear amplifier
Outer hair cells seem to act like tiny motors that amplify the movement of the basilar membrane during low intensity sound stimuli
Demonstration of how critical a role the amplifier plays
Deafness produced by antibiotics is thought to be a consequence of damage to cochlear amplifier
Afferents from the spiral ganglion enter the brain stem from where
In the auditory vestibular nerve
All ascending auditory pathways converge into the
Inferior colliculus
Systematic organization of characteristic frequency within an auditory structure
Tonotopic maps exist on the
Basilar membrane with in the MGN and auditory cortex