Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Osmotolerant Mircrobes and their physiological adaptions
Tolerate High or low osmotic water activity.
Adaption=Accumulation of compatable solutes(inc. osmotic pressure within cell)
ex: honey, molasses, salt flats.
Microbial Example: Halobacterium Species and Staphyloccocus aureus
Acid Tolerance
Low: High pH >10 Alkophiles
High: Low pH>3 Acidophiles
Alkophiles(what H+ does) and what are the physiological adaptions and an example.
H+ rushes in bc their is a lower internal pH.
P.A: Increase H+ uptake.
Ex: Bacillus alkalophilus
Acidophiles(What does H+ do) and what are the physiological adaption and an example
H+ rushes out
Adaptions: pump out H+
Ex: Heliobacter pylori->in stomach produces urease to make an ammonium cloud.
Psychrophiles
low temperature lovers found in tundra about 4C. (0-15C)
Mesophiles
Medium Temperature found in our bodies, plants >15C (20-37C)
Thermophiles
High temperature found in the bottom of the ocean and in geysers and hot springs >55C
Extreme thermophiles
>80C
Adaptations of temperature
1)Prevent membreance from losing structural intergrity. Inc. Hopanoids, Ince. thioethers (archea)
2)Enzyme stability- need thermo stable enzymes(low temp-> slow enzyme reactions)
Taq Polymerase
thermal stable enzyme. Used in Polymerase chain rxn (PCR)
Polymerase Chain Reation(PCR)
Amplification of target DNA 10^6 fold within short period.
Involves a series of DNA melting-94C, Annealing-50C, and polymerization-72C
aerotolerant
tolerate small amount of oxygen
Aerobes(obligate)
Must have oxygen. Humans
Facultative aerobes
can live in aerobic and anaerobic environments
Microaerophiles
require other gases combined with oxygen. Such as carbon dioxide.
Anaerobes
cannot tolerate oxygen.
No SOD
No Catalase
What is it about oxygen?
metabolism in oxygenic environments generates toxic oxygen species
Physical adaptions of oxygen tolerance
Must have superoxide Dismutases
2O2+2H+->O2 + 2H2O2
2H2O2-> with catalase 2H20 + 02.
Osmotolerant Mircrobes and their physiological adaptions
Tolerate High or low osmotic water activity.
Adaption=Accumulation of compatable solutes(inc. osmotic pressure within cell)
ex: honey, molasses, salt flats.
Microbial Example: Halobacterium Species and Staphyloccocus aureus
Acid Tolerance
Low: High pH >10 Alkophiles
High: Low pH>3 Acidophiles
Alkophiles(what H+ does) and what are the physiological adaptions and an example.
H+ rushes in bc their is a lower internal pH.
P.A: Increase H+ uptake.
Ex: Bacillus alkalophilus
Acidophiles(What does H+ do) and what are the physiological adaption and an example
H+ rushes out
Adaptions: pump out H+
Ex: Heliobacter pylori->in stomach produces urease to make an ammonium cloud.
Psychrophiles
low temperature lovers found in tundra about 4C. (0-15C)
Mesophiles
Medium Temperature found in our bodies, plants >15C (20-37C)
Thermophiles
High temperature found in the bottom of the ocean and in geysers and hot springs >55C
Extreme thermophiles
>80C
Adaptations of temperature
1)Prevent membreance from losing structural intergrity. Inc. Hopanoids, Ince. thioethers (archea)
2)Enzyme stability- need thermo stable enzymes(low temp-> slow enzyme reactions)
Taq Polymerase
thermal stable enzyme. Used in Polymerase chain rxn (PCR)
Polymerase Chain Reation(PCR)
Amplification of target DNA 10^6 fold within short period.
Involves a series of DNA melting-94C, Annealing-50C, and polymerization-72C
aerotolerant
tolerate small amount of oxygen
Aerobes(obligate)
Must have oxygen. Humans
Facultative aerobes
can live in aerobic and anaerobic environments
Microaerophiles
require other gases combined with oxygen. Such as carbon dioxide.