Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The movement of water across a plasma membrane occurs by
simple diffusion through membrane channels
Which of these statements about the facilitated diffusion of glucose is true
carrier proteins in the cell membrane are required for this transport
If a poison such as cyanide stopped the production of ATP, which of the following transport processes would cease?
the movement of Na+ out of a cell
Red blood cells crenate in
a hypertonic solution
Plasma has an osmolality of about 300 mOsm. The osmolality of isotonic saline is equal to
300 mOsm
Which of these statements comparing a 0.5 m NaCl solution and a 1.0 m glucose solution is true?
they have the same osmolatiy

they have the same osmotic pressure

they are isotonic to each other
The most important diffusible ion in the establishment of the membrane potential
Which of these statements regarding an increase in blood osmolality is true
it can occur as a result of dehydration
In hyperkalemia the resting membrane potential
moves closer to 0 millivolts
Which of these statements about the Na+/K+ pump is true ?
the pumps are constanly active in all cells
Which of these statements about carrier mediated facilitated diffusion is true?
It is used for cellular uptake of blood glucose
Which of these is not an example of co-transport?
movement of Na+ and K+ through the action of the Na+/K+ pumps
A graded whole muscle contraction is produced in vivo primarily by variations in
the number of fibers that are contracting
The series-elastic component of muscles contraction is responsible for
increased muscle shortening to successive twitches

a time delay between contraction and shortening

the lengthening of muscle after contraction has ceased
Which of these muscles have motor units with the highest innervations ratio?
muscles taht move the figers
The stimulation of gamma motoneurons produces
isometric contraction of intrafusal fibers
In a single reflex arc involved in the knee-jerk reflex, how may synapse are activated within the spinal cord?
Spastic paralysis may occur when there is damage to
the upper motor neurons
when a skeletal muscle shortens during contraction, which of these statment is false
the A band shortens
electrical excitation of a muscle fiber most directly causes
release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
the energy for muscle contraction is most directly obtained from
which of these statements about cross bridges is false
they bind to ATP after they detach from actin
when a muscle is stimulated to contract, Ca2+ binds to
which of tese statements about muscle fatigues is false
it may be caused by a loss of muscle cell Ca2+
which of these types of muscle cells are not capable of spontaneous depolarization?
multiunit smooth muscle

skeletal muscle
which of these muscle types is striated and contains gap juctions
cardiac muscle
in an isotonic muscle contraction
the muscle tension remains constant
Extracellular environment
surrounding cells consists of fluid compartment in which molecules are dissoved and a matrix of polyaccharides and proteins that give from to tissues
all taht is inside cells
body fluids and H2O
body about 75% H2O 67% of H2O is with in cells.
H2O extracellular
33% of body H2O and 20 % or that is in the vessels of the blood or blood plasma
Tissues Fluid
remaing 80% or H2O not in blood plasma, also called interstital fluid
collagen and elastin and ground substance
connective tissues of the extracellualr matrix and consists of protein fibers
glycoproteins and proteoglycans.
gel of the the ground substance of extraceller matrix
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)
reeuqire zinc help to rebuid extraceller matrix and help to fight infection
class of clycoproteines that extend from the cytockeleton within cell to plasma membrane acts like "glue"
selectively permeable
PM choese who comes in
carrier-mediated transport
comes into cell but must be alowed by protein in PM. faciliateded diffusion and active
not carrier mediated transport required i.e. osmosis of water
Passive transport
net movement of molecules and ions across a membrane from high to low concetration **no energey** simple diffusion, osmosis and facilited diffusion
Active transprot
against a concentration gradient ATP
diffusion net change
always from high concentration to low only nonpolar molcules and small inorganic ions can pass
removed wast from blood as if it was acting as the kidney
pm patrials that are not present a barrier
O2 and Steroids, samll molecuels that are polar covalent bonds, CO2, as well as ethanol and urea
glucose and passing though the PM
needs a carrier proteins
NA+ and K+
require ionc channels to throught the membrane
can open and close, membrane voltage
Rate of diffusion
1. magnitude of the concentration difference across the membrane
2. the permeability of the membrane to the diffusing substances
3. the temperature of the solution
4. surface area of the membrance through which the substances are diffusing
net diffusion of watehr across the membrane
osmotically active
when solutes cannot freely pass throught the memrane
osmotic pressure
opssing force that would prevent osmosis
person has an abnormally low concentration of PM proteins with an excessive accummulation of fluid in the tissues
the effect of a solution on the osmotic mevement of water
5% dextrose and normal saline have same osmolality as plasma
same as
H2O flows into cell Higher concentration out side cell
hypertonic solution
H2O flows out H2O low out
cell dies in hypertonic solution
cell splits from hypotonic
mediated protein carriers
specificity, competition and saturation
facilitated diffsuion
glucose from the blood across PM, ATP not required for faciliated or simple diffusion
glucose concentratio of the blood and filtrate is too high
PM glucose concentraton is abnormally low
Active transport
ATP goes against concentration gradients
Primary Active Transport
when the hydrolysis of ATP is directly required for function of the carriers. Sodium-potassium pump
sodium potassium pum
Na+ provides energy by coupled transport
Na+ important for osmotic reasons, incress Na+
2nd active transport
coupled transport energy is needed for uphill movement of molecule or ion is obtained from the downhill transport of Na+ into cell
oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
Na+ and gluouse bind together and neter cell, used in sports drinks
bulk transport
exocytosis and endocytosis
increases the angle at a joint
decresase the angle at a joint
moves limb away from the midline of the body
moves lib towards midline of body
moves insertion upward
moves insertion downward
constricts an opening
Muscles shortens
Flesion /tenstion
attach bone to muscle
movable bony attachement of muscle
non movable bony attachement
agonist muscle
prime mover of any skeletal movement in flexion what you want
what you do not want produce opposite action
fibrous connective tissue
sheath around muscles
extention of epimysium subdividing into colums
surrounded by fascicles inbetween fascicles
PM of muscle fiber/cell
thin connective tissuer layer covering sarcolemma
sliding of filaments
slide over each other
each cell is composed of many subunites
myofibrial contains even smaller structures of proteind
A band
thick, composed of myosin
I band
Thin, composed of actin
H band
center of sarcomere
Z disk
suround the thick filiments and are end of sarcomere
M line
center of H band,
acts like a coil to elastic recoil of sarcomere
H band and I band shoten, thin slides over thick
cross bridges
shorting of action and mysoin, attachement and pulling by mysoin arms
Contration and Relation
require ATP
Rigor mortis
sets in becuase no energy thus cell cannot relax
cross bridges one shorting
1% total can be 60% by contration and relaxing like climbing a later
Regulation of contraction
actin filament F-actin G-actin twis of cells
band around actin blocks binding sites
troponine complex
blocks binding site
sored in ER of muscle
movement of troponin
Ca+ moves Troponin alowing binding
transverse tubes, terminal cisternae
tridada 1-1-1 2 trans tubes 1 term -- alows for relase of Ca+
main chemical that alows muscle contration
staircase muscule reaction
isometric contration
muscle lenght stays the same
isotonic contration
lifiting shorting of musle
requiring O2
no O2
slow oxidative
type I fibers, red fibers
fast twitch type II
white fiber, anerobic burn out easy
type IIA
muscle fatigue
exercise-induced reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force