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65 Cards in this Set

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Single Sugars
Monosaccharides
Double Sugars
Disaccharides
The 3 single sugars (Monosaccharides) are
1. Glucose
2. Fructose (fruit sugar)
3. Galactose (from milk)
The 3 double sugars (Disaccharides) are
Glucose+Fructose= Sucrose
Glucose+Glucose= Maltose
Glucose+galactose=Lactose
What is the most important Sugar in the human body
Glucose - Most other monosaccharide an disaccharides become glucose in the body.
Through Photosynthesis
plants combine carbon dioxide, water, and the sun's energy to form glucose.
Carbohydrates (Carbon) (Hydrate)
are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and held together by energy-containing bonds
Chlorophyll
The green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis
sugars
simple carbohydrates; that is, molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those sugar units bonded together. By common usage, sugar most often refers to sucrose.
Glucose
A single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy; sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose
Polysaccharides
Another term for complex carbohydrates; compounds composed of long strands of glucose units linked together.
Starch
A plant polysaccharide composed of glucose. After cooking, starch is highly digestible by human beings.
Glycogen
A highly branched polysaccharide composed of glucose that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose.
Fibers (Cellulose)
The indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes.
Human digestive enzymes?
Cannot break the bonds in fiber. so most of it passes through the digestive tract unchanged. Some fiber, however, is susceptible to fermentation by bacteria in the colon.
Soluble fibers
Food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods
Viscous
Having a sticky, gummy, or gel-like consistency that flows relatively slow.
Insoluble fibers
the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water.
Proteins
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and arranged as strands of amino acids. Some amino acids also contain the element sulfur.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of protein. Each has an amine group at one end, an acid group at the other, and a distinctive side chain.
Amine Group
The nitrogen-containing portion of an amino acid.
Side-Chain
The unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of each amino acid that differentiates one amino acid from another.
Essential amino acids
Amino acids that either cannot be synthesized at all by the body or cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet physiological need.
Peptide Bond
A bond that connects one amino acid with another, forming a link in a protein chain.
Collagen
A type of body protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, legaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.
Enzymes
Protein catalysts. A catalyst is a compound that facilitates a chemical reaction without itself being altered in the process.
Hemoglobin
The globular protein of red blood cells. whose iron atoms carry oxygen around the body via the bloodstream.
Denaturation
The irreversible change in a protein's shape brought about by heat, acids, bases, alcohol, salts of heavy metals, or other agents.
Each type of protein?
has a distinctive sequence of amino acids and so has great specificity. Often, cells specialize in synthesizing particular types of proteins in addition to the proteins necessary to all cells. Nutrients act as environmental signals affecting genetic activities.
Polypeptides
Protein fragment of many amino acids bonded together. A peptide is a strand of amino acids. A strand of between four and ten amino acids is called an oligopeptide.
Dipeptides
Protein fragments that are two amino acids long
Tripeptides
Protein fragments that are three amino acids long
The cells of the small intestine complete?
digestion, absorb amino acids and som larger peptides, and release them into the bloodstream for use by the body's cells.
Bloodstream
The bloodstream transports amino acids to all the body's cells.
Stomach
When swallowed food arrives in the stomach, acid denatures the protein strands, and an enzyme cleaves amino acid strands into polypepites and a few amino acids.
Small Intestine
Enzymes from the pancreas and the intestine split peptide strands into tripeptides. dipeptides, and amino acids.
Small Intestine
Enzymes on the surface of the small intestine's lining and within the absorptive cells spilt tripeptides and dipeptides. The intestinal cells absorb and transfer amino acids to the bloodstream.
The body makes?
Enzymes, hormones, and chemical messengers of the nervous system from its amin acids.
The shape of a protein
dictates its function in the body
The side groups
dictates the shape of the protein.
Amino Acid Sequence
ditates protein shape. There are 20 of them.
Essential amino acids
There are 9 of them. The body cannot make them
Non-Essential amino acids
There are 11 of them. The body can make them
Proteins help maintain PH levels
They act as buffers
The order of the 20 amino acids in the chain
determine its shape
The shape of the amino acid
that ditactes its function
Nitrogen
is found in every amino acid
Proteins do
fluid balance
acid nutrilization
hormones
Kwashiorkor
Large bellies due to lack of protein in diet. Decreases in blood protein. Edema- Causes fatty liver. Proteins need to transport fat out of liver are not being made.
Marasmus
Starvation. Usually die from a heart attack.
The body does not store proteins and they are all functional
If not used they will be recycled and broken down. Same for amino acids.
Amino Group Nitrogen
Carbon Compound
Nitrogen is broken down?
In the liver and excreted.
RDA for protein
31g protein lost each day
Adjusted to 40 because of population variables. Adjusted to 56g because of protein quality. So RDa is 56g protein per 70kilograms of body weight.
RDA for protein formula
0.8g per kilogram (KG) body weight.
Example:
Proteins
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and arranged as strands of amino acids.
Amine Group
Nitrogen Part
Amino acids
are the building blocks of protien. Each has an amine group at one end and a acid group at the other. Attached to this is the side chain.
A strand of amino acids
that make up a protein may contain 20 different kinds of amino acids.
The side chains
make the amino acids differ in size, shape. and electrical charge.
RDA for protein
56g pro/70 kg body weight

There are 0.8g protein per kg body weight
Converting lbs to kgs
wieght 210lbs divided by 2.2 =
we can store 400 calories of glycogen
in the liver
we can store 1200 calories of glcogen
in the muscles
When blood glocose goes down and dips
a hormone is released from the pancreas to raise it.