• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/85

Click to flip

85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the Skeleton
Support and form for the body

Place for muscle attachment and contraction

Protection for delicate organs (skull protecting brain, rib cage/ sternum for lungs and heart)

Fat and calcium storage

Produces blood cells (red bone marrow)
Types of Skeletons
Hyrdostatic Skeleton

Exoskeleton

Endoskeleton
Hydrostatic Skeleton
Fluid filled internal cavity- worms
Exoskeleton
Outside of the body- insects, crustaceans
Endoskeleton
Inside of the body- vertebrates
Skeleton
206 bones total in the human body
Axial
Skull
- cranium: protects brain
- facial bones
Vertebral Column
spine and backbone
Neck
atlas and axis

7 cervical (neck)
Chest Area
12 thoracic
"Small of Back"
5 lumbar
Fused Vertebrae
5 sacral and 4 coccyx
Intervertebral Discs
Between vertebrae- old notochord
Ribs
12 pair

7 pairs of ribs attach directly to the sternum (true ribs)

3 pairs of ribs are "false"- connected via cartilage

2 pairs of ribs are "floating"- no connection
Sternum
breastbone- protects heart
Pectoral Girdle
Shoulder Blade

Collar Bone

Rotator Cuff
Shoulder Blade
Scapula
Collar Bone
Clavicle
Rotator Cuff
Tendons and Ligaments
Arms
Humerus, Radius, and Ulna
Wrists
Carpals
Hands
Metacarpals and Phalanges
Pelvic Girdle
Hip

- illium
- ischium
- pubis
Legs
Femur

Tibia

Fibula
Kneecap
Patella
Ankles
Tarsals
Feet
Metatarsals and Phalanges
Living Bone
Moist, active, requires nourishment
Ossification
Cartilage cells of childhood are relplaced by bone cells- hardens body frame
Calcium Compounds
deposited between bone cells- increases strength

- Osteopina
- Osteoporosis
Milk or Green Leafy Vegetables
Source of calcium for bone growth
Periosteum
Outer covering of bone
Compact Bone
Beneath periosteum- contains calcium and phosphorus salt deposits
Central Canals
Channels that pass through compact bone

Contain blood vessels and nerves
Haversian System/Osteon
Osteocyte Cells- in concentric circles- produce calcium salts

Osteoblasts- deposit bone

Osteoclasts- digest bone with enzymes
Spongy Bone
irregular spaces

ends of long bones
- reduces weigh of bones
Red Marrow
Found in flat bones (ribs) and in the ends of long bones
Yellow Marrow
Central cavity of long bones

- fat storage
Muscular Functions
Movement

Move blood in veins and lymphatic vessels

Help maintain body temperature
Types of Smooth Tissue
In wall of many internal organs

- can't be consciously controlled
- involuntary muscles
Cardiac Muscles
Specialized involuntary muscle found in the heart

- Intercalated discs: tight connections between cells

- Striated: light/ dark bands

- Cylindrical shape

- Branched
Skeletal Muscles
Large muscles of the body

- Voluntary muscle: consciously controlled

- Striated: light/ dark bands

- Multinucleate: cells fused to make one long fiber, end to end

- Cylindrical shape
Tendons
Muscle to bone

Achilles' is the largest
Antagonistic Pairs
Muscles can only pull, not push
Flexor
Bends joint- Biceps
Extensor
Straightens joint- Triceps
Abductor
- From midline of the body

- Towards midline of the body
Origin
Attachment of muscle to stationary point
Insertion
Attachment of muscle at movable point
Tetanus
Maximal sustained contraction
Tone
Some contraction- excercise
Latisimus dorse
"lats"

over ribs in back
Biceps
Flexor
Triceps
Extensor
Masseter
Cheek- stroungest pound for pound
Trapezius
Tops of shoulders to neck
Deltoid
Caps shoulder
Glueteus Maximus
Buttocks- largest muscle in the body
Gastrocnemius
Calf
Muscle Fiber
Single cell composed of hundred to thousand of myofibrils- can be as long as twelve inches
Sarcolemma
Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

- holds myofibrils together
- has many nuclei- multinucleate

- T tubules- extensions of the sarcolemma (dips down into the cell, carries never impulses to myofibrils)
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Network of membranous channels

- storage for Ca+- needed for myosin to bind to actin

- surround the myofibrils
Myofibrils
Contractile portion

Composed of sarcomeres- protein filaments

- actin
- myosin
Actin
slides past myosin- no cross bridges
Myosin
pull actin filaments by cross bridges- uses ATP and Ca+
Dark and Light Bands
Called striations
Z Lines
Dark lines- delineates edge of sarcomeres
Neuromuscular Junction
Motor neuron (nerve) attaches to a muscle fiber

- axon bulb lies on sarcolemma
- acetylcholine- neurotransmitter across synapse
- impulse- runs through T tubules
Joint
Point at which two separate bones meet- held together by ligaments
Synovial Fluid
Lubricates joints
Meniscus
Cartilage on ends of bones
Bursa
Sac which serves as cushion between bones- knee, elbow, shoulder
Kinds of joints
Immovable

Partially movable

Hinge Joint

Ball & Socket

Gliding Joint

Pivot Joint
Immovable
Skull
Partially Movable
Vertebrae
Hinge Joint
Elbow, Knee
Ball & Socket
Hip, Shoulder
Gliding Joint
Wrist, Ankle
Pivot Joint
Head & Spine
Joint Disorders
Strain

Sprain

Bursitis

Torn Cartilage
Strain
Overstretching
Sprain
Some tearing
Bursitis
Inflammation of bursa

Tenis Elbow
Torn Cartilage
Arthroscopic Surgery
Osteoarthritis
Worn out joints