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86 Cards in this Set

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Inferior Courts:
the lower federal courts, those beneath the Supreme Court. There are two types of lower courts; the constitutional courts and the special courts.
Original Jurisdiction:
When a case is first heard in a court. Jurisdiction is the authority of a court to hear a case.
Writ of Certiorari
(to be made certain) it’s an order by the Court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for its review. Either party to a case can petition the Court to issue a writ. A “cert” is only granted in a limited number of instances-typically, only when a petition raises some important constitutional question or a serious problem in the interpretation of a statute.
Dissenting Opinion
are often written by those justices who do not agree with the Court’s majority decision.
Concurring Opinion
to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority opinion. The concurring opinions may bring the Supreme Court to modify its present stand in future cases.
Majority
announces the Court’s decision in a case and sets out the reasoning on which it is based. AKA Opinion of the Court.
Quorum
least number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business.
Federalist and Anti-Federalist
When the Constitution was printed two groups emerged. Federalist who favored ratification, and the Anti-Federalist who opposed it
Connecticut Compromise
Congress should be composed of two houses. In the smaller Senate, the States would be represented equally. In the House, the representation of each State would be based upon its population.
Popular Sovereignty
government can exist and function only with the consent of the govern. It is the people who hold power; it is the people who are sovereign.
Confederation
Form of government in which an alliance of independent states creates a single government of very limited power; the member states have supreme authority over all matters except in those few areas in which they have expressly delegated power to the central government.
English Bill of Rights
prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament, and required that all parliamentary elections be free. Also guaranteed the right to a fair and speedy trial, freedom from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment.
Representative Government
the idea that the government should serve the will of the people. People should have a voice in deciding what government should and should not do. “Government of, by, and for the people.”
Political Efficacy
people that lack any sense of their own influence or effectiveness in politics.
Test 1 US Gov Mr. Livingstone
Test 1 US Gov Mr. Livingstone
Actual Nonvoters and the Reason for this Behavior
Nonvoters are people who just decide not to vote for many of different reasons. Such as deliberately not going to the pools, they believe it doesn’t make a difference, or they believe that no matter who is elected things will still go good.
Gerrymandering
is the practice of drawing electoral district lines in order to limit the voting strength of a particular group or party.
Registration
All states except North Dakota require that most or all voters be registered to vote. Is a procedure of voter identification, intended to prevent fraudulent voting.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlaws discrimination in several areas, and especially in job-related matters. It forbids the use of any registration requirement in an unfair or discriminatory manner.
Political Efficacy
people that lack any sense of their own influence or effectiveness in politics.
Injunction
a court order that requires or forbids some specific action.
Literacy
a person’s ability to read and write. To vote you had to have at least some capacity to cast an informed ballot.
Voting Qualifications
Usually Aliens are generally denied the right to vote although it is not in the constitution that they can’t vote but state has the right to determine if they will let them or not. Most states will require a person to live within the state for some time period. The 26th amendment sets 18 as the cap on the minimum age for voting.
Electorate
the potential voting population. More than 200 million people, nearly all citizens who are at least 18 years of age, can qualify to vote.
Suffrage
the right to vote.
The Nature of Human Nature
Thomas Hobbes describes the nature of human nature by emphasizing “Our animal nature, leaving each of us to live independently of everyone else, acting only in his or her own self-interest, without regard for others. This produces what he called the "state of war," a way of life that is certain to prove "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
The Social Contract Theory
this theory argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. It holds that the state exist only to serve the will of the people, and that they are the sole source of political power, and that they are free to give or to withhold that power as they choose. The great concepts that this theory promoted-popular sovereignty, limited government, and individual rights- were immensely important to the shaping of the American governmental system.
The Magna Carta
(the great charter) signed at Runnymede in 1215. Knowing of King John’s military campaigns and heavy taxes, the barons were seeking protection against arbitrary acts by the king. It included such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law- protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, and property.
Separation of Powers
The constitution distributes the powers of the national government among the congress (the legislative branch), the President (executive branch), and the courts (the judicial branch).
The Mayflower Compact
established a form of local government in which the colonists agree to abide by majority rule and to cooperate for the general good of the colony. The Compact sets the precedent for other colonies as they set up governments.
The Articles of Confederation
established “a firm league of friendship” among the States. Each State kept “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right. States came together “for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare.”
David Souter
Liberal
Stephan Breyer
Moderate
Clarence Thomas
Conservative
Antonin Scalia
Conservative
Anthony Kennedy
Moderate
John G. Roberts Jr.
Cheif Justice
Conservative?
John Paul Stevens
Liberal
Ruth Ginsburg
Liberal
Samuel A Alito
Conservative?
Amendment I
freedom of religion, speech, press, assemble peacfully, pettition the government
Amendment II
right to keep and bear arms
Amendment III
no housing soliders
Amendment IV
no unreasonble searches and seizures
Amendment V
right to a grand jury, no double jepordy, no witness agaist self, due process of law
Amendment VI
right to a speedy and public trial, confronted with the witnesses against him, obtaining witnesses in his favor, lawer criminal
Amendment VII
Right to an aturney in civil cases
Amendment VIII
No cruel or Unusual punishments
Amendment IX
more rights then listed here.
Who was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence
Thomeas Jefferson
How many terms can a president serve
2 or 10 years
Two senators from you state?
Barbra Boxer and Dian Finstein
how many representatives are there in congress
House: 435 Senate: 100
For how long do we elect each senator
6 years
For how long do we elect the representatives
2 years
How many changes or amendments are there to the constitution
27
For how long do we elect the president
4 years
Liberals
-Group Responsibility
-Change
-Religious Tolerance
-Trust Government
-Woman's right to chose
-Gun control to protect society
-No capital punishment
-Protect US intrests through diplomacy
Conservatives
-Individual Accountability
-Stability
-Traditional Religious values
-Trust business
-rights for the unborn
-capital punishment
-Protect US interest with the military
Liberals
-Group Responsibility
-Change
-Religious Tolerance
-Trust Government
-Woman's right to chose
-Gun control to protect society
-No capital punishment
-Protect US intrests through diplomacy
Conservatives
-Individual Accountability
-Stability
-Traditional Religious values
-Trust business
-rights for the unborn
-capital punishment
-Protect US interest with the military
Aristotle's Matrix
GOV= GOOD --> BAD
One= monarchy--> tyranny
Few= Aristocracy--> oligarchy
Many= Polity--> Democracy (mobocracy
Aristotles matrix and our government
One= executive branch
Few=Legislative branch: senate 100 pep
Many= legislative branch: house 435 pep
Jobs
President-
Legistlative-
Judical-
Presidental-enforces laws
Legistlative- makes lawas
Judical- interpits laws
Routes of Appeal
3 Tears
US district courts-->
US Court of Appeals-->
Spreme Court (Final resort)
Supreme Court
-reviews only 4% of all requests
-term begins on 1st monday of october and ends in June
Concurring opinion
means person agrees with the majority vote but for a different reason
Courts of Appeal
-no witnesses, cross examinatons, or jurors
-only excepted on basis of improper courtroom procedure or an incorrect application of the law
Original JUrisdiction
If situtation is so importanat it will start in Supreme court
Parts of Constitution
Parts of Constitution
Article I
Legislative
Article II
executive
Article III
JUdicial
Article IV
Relations among states
Article V
Amending process
Article VI
National Surpremacy
Article VII
Ratification
David Hackett Souter
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Stephan Gerald Breyer
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Clarence Thomas
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Antonin Gregory Scalia
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Anthony Kennedy
Who is this supreme Court Justice
John G. Roberts Jr.
Who is this supreme Court Justice
John Paul Stevens
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Who is this supreme Court Justice
Samuel A. Alito Jr.
Who is this supreme court justice