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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Robert Hooke
built the first compound microscope, and used it to observe slices of cork
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
made and used first lenses to observe living microorganisms
swan neck flask, first rabies vaccine
Koch's Postulates
1. the specific causative agent must be found in every case of the disease
2. the disease organism must be isolated in a pure culture
3. inoculation of a sample of the culture into a healthy, susceptible animal must produce same disease
4. the disease organsim must be recovered from the inoculated animal
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis
encouraged more sanitary practices and was ridiculed, drove him crazy
encouraged sanitary precautions, the first aseptic techniques
microorganism that lacks a cell nucleus and membrane-enclosed internal structures; all bacteria are prokaryotes
a cell that has a distinct cell nucleus and other membrane-bound structures
Shapes (bacteria)
coccus = spherical
bacillus = cylindrical
helical = spirilla
polymorphic = amorphous
diplo = two
strepto = chain of
staphlo = bunch of grapes
tetrad = 4
Cell wall
Semirigid, lies outside the cell membrane in nearly all bacteria. It maintains the shape of the cell, and prevents the cell from bursting during osmosis
most important part of the cell wall, forms a supporting net
Gram-Postitive Bacteria
Very big with one membrane, surrounded by Peptidoglycan. Stains purple
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Two membranes, inner and outer made of lipopolysaccharide and proteins, has a smaller peetidoglycan. Stains pink.
Cell Membrane
Forms a boundary between outside and cytoplams. Made up of the fluid-mosaic model, which is made up of phospholipids. The outside are hydrophilic, the inside are hydrophobic.
Semifluid substance inside the cell membrane. Makes up the majority of the inside of a prokaryotic cell
Consist of a ribonucleic acid and protein, often grouped in long chains. Serve as sites for protein synthesis.
Centrally located, consists mainly of DNA and some ribosomes. Some cells (mainly eukaryotic) have more than one nucleoid
A small circular, independently replicating piece of DNA in a cell that is not part of its chromosome and can be transferred to another cell. May contain virulence genes.
Long, hair like structures, used for movement and attachment
hair like (fuzzy), involved in attachment. Paritrycous = all along/random on the cell
a distinct organelle enclosed by a nuclear envelope and contains the genetic material
Nuclear Envelope
allows movement of molecules into and out of nucleus, it is a double membrane (phospholipidbilayer)
the powerhouse of the eukaryotic cell. Outer and inner membranes, fluid filled matrix inside the inner membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
smooth and rough (rough has ribosomes), it is an extensive membrane network. It manufactures proteins
Golgi Complex
Is the "sorter" tells things where to go. It receives substances transported from the endoplasmic reticulum, stores them, and releases.
Contain hydrogen peroxide, involved in phagocytosis
Contains digestive enzymes, breaks down molecules and is involved in phagocytosis of materials
Ingestion of solids into cells by means of lysosomes and phagosome
very small infectious agents, they can only replicate inside a living host cell
Viruses surrounding protein coat
Envelope (virus)
Surrounding lipid bilayer, virus without an envelope is a naked virus
Loeffler and Frosch
Discovered foot and mouth disease of cattle to be the first virus along with tobacco mosaic virus
viruses that infect bacteria, have a complex shape
an organism that lives at the expense of another organism, or the host.
Parasites that cause disease
Parasites that cause disease
for bacteria to colonize, they need to adhere and multiply
the multiplication of any parasitic organism on or within the host's body, may be benign
A disturbance in the state of heath wherein the body cannot carry out all its normal functions
The intensity of the disease produced by pathogens, the relative ability of a microorganism to cause infectious disease. Its degree of pathogenicity (strength to infect)
Communicable infectious disease
diseases that can be spread from one host to another
Virulence factor: attachment to a host cell's surface
Proteins or glycoproteins found on attachment pili and capsules, they promote attachment
an enzyme that digests hyaluronic acid, the substance that helps hold the cells together. It helps the bacteria to invade
a bacterial enzyme that accelerates the clotting of blood. It is used to keep organisms from spreading but also helps wall them off from immune defenses
dissolves blood clots
are soluble substances, and carried throughout the body
are part of the cell wall and are released into host tissues, can travel through blood system (e.g. E. coli)
an exotoxin that affects the intestine, e.g. the toxin that causes cholera
Acute disease
develops rapidly and runs its course quickly
an infectious disease agent that is present continually in a population of a particular geographic area, but both the number of reported cases and severity remain too low to constitute a public health problem
arises when a disease suddenly has a higher than normal incidence in a population
occurs when an epidemic spreads worldwide
Nosocomial Infection
an infection acquired in a hospital setting
Acquired Immunity
immunity obtained in some manner other than by heredity
Naturally aquired immunity
most often obtained by having a specific disease, can also be acquired fetally or through breast milk
Active Immunity
created when a persons own immune system produces antibodies, e.g. when a person is exposed to an infectious agent or through vaccine
Passive Immunity
created when ready made antibodies are introduced into the body e.g. breast feeding, snake venom
a substance the body identifies as foreign and toward which it mounts an immunity response
a protein produced in response to an antigen that is capable of binding specifically to the antigen
antibody reaction resulting in the clumping of microbes, allows for faster phagocytosis
an antibody reaction in which a B cell binds to the antigen, this stops the toxin from reaching its target
antibody reaction that effectively stops the toxin from doing further damage to the host, it does not despory, just prevents