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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why should we study pleasure
-virtue and vice of character are about pain and pleasure.
-most people think happiness involves pleasure.
Difficulties/Puzzles of Friendship
1. Based on similarity or difference?
2. Possible btwn Good people only? Bad?
3. Are there different species of fship?
Object of Friendship
What is Loveable?
What is USEFUL - Utility
What is PLEASANT - Pleasure
What is GOOD - Virtuous
3 Species of Friendship
How do you argue for Different Species of Friendship?
The object of friendship is loveable.
Loveable is useful, pleasant, or good.
So the object of friendship is utility, pleasure, or virtue.
Requisites of Friendship
1. Must have goodwill for the friend
2. Must wish good for friend's sake.
3. Must be aware of each other's goodwill.
Incomplete Friendships - Why?
Pleasure and Utility.
Pleasure - unenduring because the friend is loved for the pleasure given.
Utility - when what's useful ends, the friendship ends. Loved for the useful.
Complete Friendship
-Friendship of good people, similar in virtue.

-Both are good, and wish good to other.
-Friendship lasts as long as they are both good, so endures because virtue is everlasting.
Since friendship is a virtue, what does it require?
-A state and an activity.
-Active friendship (living together)is most complete, but if the friendship is asleep, the state of friendship is enough. When a person becomes a friend, they become a good for the other friend.
Characteristic Activies of Friendships
Virtuous: Friends get the same thing from each other and enjoy each other.
Pleasure: similar in that exchange what is pleasant, but dissolve when pleasure is gone.
Utility: have goodwill to each other since they wish gods/help in time of need.
Friendship between Unequals
Parent/child, Husb/Wife, Young/Old

-Loving is proportional.
-Better person is loved more than loves.
Is friendship based on similarity or difference?
Complete, virtuous fship is based on similarity and equality in virtuous people. This is enduring.
Fship also is based on difference; as long as the unequals have a pleasurable or useful property desired.
2 Prerequisites for Happiness
money - without it, can't survive
2 Candidates for Happiness that don't bring it
Pleasure - never fully satisfying
Honor - puts you at the mercy of others; too superficial.
2 candidates for happiness that bring it
Virtue - the virtuous person is happy.
contemplation - in a complete life contemplation brings happiness.
Function Argument
Everything has a function. Every virtuous thing functions well. Virtues are the things that make a thing function well.
Function Argument re: humans
Humans function is reason/intellect.
Good Humans reason well.
The virtues make humans reason well
Parts of the Soul
Rational: Practical/Theoretical Wisdom
Nonrational: EDA/Vegetative
Virtuous Activity in accordance with reason and if there is more than one the best and most complete.
Virtue of Character
A state of character, lying in a mean, between two vices, excess and deficiency, acquired by habit, and as reason would direct.
What governs EDA
Practical Reason
Psychical, physiological response to a situation.
-I feel butterflies
-Don't necessary initially recognize what the feeling is.
The result of making a judgement on a feeling. You can't have emotions without feelings.
-First feel butterflies.
-Judge; recognize as nervous.
How to feelings/emotions relate to virtue?
How we respond to our emotions gives rise to whether we are virtuous or not.

If emotions are controlled by reason, we're virtuous.
Virtuous Person
One who possesses a stable disposition to react to emotions in an appropriate way.
4 Limitations for Voluntary action
2 types
-Universals: voluntary
-Particular: involuntary
Pleasure re: Involuntary Action
Pleasure is not an excuse for involuntary action. One makes a conscious decision to act for pleasure.
Even though one may act under duress, they still choose to act. Therefore, this action is voluntary.
The person that is forced to act is involuntary. If a donkey bumps you from behind and you fall into the canyon, you did not choose to do so; it's involuntary.
Definition of Voluntary Action
The source of motion is internal to the agent. This source is deliberation and decision for action.
Definition of Involuntary Action
The source of motion is external to the agent.
Virtues of Character
Bravery, Temperance, Magnanimity, Small honors, Magnificence, Generosity, Friendliness, Truthfulness, Wit, Mildness,
mean: brave
excess: rash
deficiency: Stingy
mean: Magnificent
excess: Vulgar
deficiency: Pusillanimous
mean: Magnanimous
excess: Vain
Virtue concerned with Small Honors
deficiency: Indifferent to Honor
mean: Nameless
excess: Honor-lover
deficiency: Cantankerous, Quarrelsome
mean: Nameless
excess: Ingratiating
deficiency: Nameless
mean: Mild
excess: Irascible
deficiency: Boorish
mean: Witty
excess: Buffoon
deficiency: Self-depracator
mean: Truthful
excess: Boastful
erotic, sexual love
friendship love
familial love - affection
Agape love
Incomplete friendship types
pleasure and utility
Teoleological Terms
the dimensions of ehtics.. ends must be complete in themselves.
what two quasi virtues bring together a community
Justice and Friendship
Justice increases with closer Friendship
The closer friendship (brotherly) is more just than the distant (kind/servants).
3 species of political system and their deviations
Kingship - Tyranny
Aristocracy - Oligarchy
Timocracy - Democracy
Political System with Most Deviation
Kingship to Tyranny.
King considers advantage of his subjects (like a father to sons). BEST
Tyrant considers only his own advantage.
(like persian king whose sons serve him.
rule of the best
rule of the few
Deviation of Aristocracy
aristocracy rules for the good of all; oligarchy rules for themselves, keeping the ruling offices, distrib goods to themselves.. etc.
Worst Political System/Deviation
Timocracy and Democracy.
Timocracy: majority rule with property
Democracy: majority rule with equality
Household resemblence of
Father/son love
Father/son serving Persian king
Household Resemblance to
Man/Woman relationship - each rules in area that is fitting.

Man controls everything; action does not accord with worth of woman.
Household Resemblence to
Brother/Brother; equal except for age

Household w/ no master; everyone is free to do what they like.
4 components of Friendship
Goodwill, Benevolence, Self-love, Concord
Good Mind/Intellect
Goodthinking, admiration, respect.
Superficial; does not constitue friendship in itself; just the beginning of friendship.
bene = good
vole = will
well-wishing based on recognition of another's excellence.
Admiration, respect for someone.
Cheering for someone who just broke a world record. Liking someone from a distance. Not sufficient for friendship
Wanting what's good for someone for their own sake. This is beyond eunoia/goodwill
3 Ways to Think Good of another
Goodness: love the character of one
Pleasure: love the effect another has on me.
Utility: love of money/usefulness.

Good is highest, Utility is lowest.
Difference between Benevolence/Goodwill
Benevolence: willing something good for someone, for their own sake. Even without getting a return.
-Active Participation.

Goodwill is merely RECOGNITION of good.
Why is a good Friend a good friend to self also?
The relationship between good friends is modeled on a good one's relationship to himself.
Has an understanding of what is good for themself, so will pursue the good for themself. As a result, are able to wish the good for others, because they know what the good is.
5 Requirements of Self-Love
1. Wishes to be/live
2. Wishes/does what's good for self
3. Wishes to spend time with self.
4. Shares in own distresses/pleasures
5. Is of one mind with themself
5 Results of NOT having the 5 characteristics of Self-love:
1.(wish to be)Holds life cheaply; engages in risky behaviors.
2. Doesn't wish/do good for self, rather wishes appetitive desires.
3. Doesn't share in distresses/pleasures with self; Conflicted - when called in re cheating, both relieved that not caught, but guilty for cheating. Can't fully participate in defending.
4. Doesn't wish to spend time w/ self; avoids reflection and thinking about how they live.
5. IS not of one mind w/ themself; The EDA and Practical Reason conflict and disagree.
Definition of Incontinence/Softness
Incontinent abandons rational calculation. Knows his actions are base, but acts based on feelings.
Abides by rational calculation
Actions are based on reason; Does HAVE base appetites (therefore not virtuous), but acts on reason, not emotion.
3 States to Avoid
Characteristics of Superhuman Virtue
EDA Reason Action

Correct Correct Correct
Characteristics of Virtue
EDA Reason Action
Correct Correct Correct
Dfiference between Superhuman virtue and regular virtue
Superhuman virtue is virtuous activity in superhuman circumstances.
Characteristics of Continence
EDA Reason Action
Wrong Correct Correct
Characteristics of Incontinence
EDA Reason Action
Wrong Correct Wrong
Characteristics of Vice
EDA Reason Action
Wrong Wrong Wrong
Characteristics of Bestiality
EDA Reason Action
Desires Missing/shut WRONG!!!
Unnatural off
3 Things desired by BEASTS
1. Eating human fetuses
2. Sodomy
3. Chewing Fingernails
Concord - why it's required for fship
Agreement; but not just common belief.
Wish for what is just and advantageous, sought in common - what's really good for all others, for their sake.
Difference between Virtuous and Vicious Self-lovers
Virtuous - guided by reason. Generous
Vicious - guided by EDA. Greedy
Is it better to have friends in Good or Ill Fortune?
When I am in Good fortune. For giving is better than taking.
2 Ways one can knowingly do what's wrong
-Ignorance; resembles incontinence.
Patient needs to cut out sweets; eats hot fudge sundae - didn't realize it's sweets.
-Incontinence; smoker knows it kills. Desire to be cool overpowers desire to be healthy.
2 Things that shape Desires
Reason - shapes them correctly.
Appetites - shapes them wrongly.
Difference btwn Simple and General Incontinence
General: unqualified incontinence.. incontinence about everything.

Simple: incontinence with regard to X.. usually pleasure, could be bravery, generosity, any virtue
Why is friendship necessary?
Virtuous people want virtuous friends.
-They love to percieve that they themselves are living, because 'being' is good, and it's easier to percieve the actions of others, so percieving that one's virtuous friend is being is good, and gives completeness in virtue and happiness.
Natural Law
-hybrid of agent-based ethics and rule/law-based ethics that guides the agent's actions.
-Uses nichomach ethics but changes it, adding 3 theological virtues.
General concept of natural law
Things that are true can't conflict;
If aristotle's nichomachean theory is true, it must be in harmony with Gods law.
Why Natural Law is called that
-Harmonious with our human flourishing; God wants us to be good.
-Known by our innate intelligence; don't need superhuman intelligence to be virtuous.
LAW: God is the law-giver.
Why Natural Law is called that
-Harmonious with our human flourishing; God wants us to be good.
-Known by our innate intelligence; don't need superhuman intelligence to be virtuous.
LAW: God is the law-giver.
Purpose of Scripture
Tells us what can't be known by human intelligence - supernatural knowledge.
Plato's 4 Cardinal Virtues
Justice, Courage, Temperance, Wisdom
3 Theological virtues
Faith, Hope, Love
3 Things God's Eternal Law Governs:
Laws of
-Nature - governs Human Law
what does Natural Law order?
Be good and do good in general.
obey human law, it will tell particulars.
Purpose of Human Law
Gives laws not covered by natural law.
2 Criteria for Human Law
-The higher faculty used as principle of action, the worse action is.
-The higher the object violated, the worse the action is.
2 Things to take into account when determining whether action is licit or sinful:
Primary Purpose of Capacity
Secondary Purposes

i.e., eating: nutritive.. then social, pleasure.
How to determine whether an action is licit or sinful via Human Law
Virtuous: accomplishes primary purpose.
Sinful: does accomplish 1* purpose, but in the wrong way.
Perverse: deviates so far from the mean; violates the primary purpose of action/capacity.