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51 Cards in this Set

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C Rule
C before i, e, and y= S
Diphthong
A type of vowel, where the tongue starts in one vowel position and moves to a second vowel position (second vowel maybe considered a semi vowel)
There are three dipthongs:
/ay/ or /ai/ as in b i de
/oy/ or /oi/ as in b o y
/aw/ or /au/ as in l ou d
Consonant
A sound produced when air is obstructed in some way before being expelled from the lungs through the oral cavity or nasal cavity.
Characteristics of the Canadian Phonetic Alphabet
24 consonants
11 vowels
3 dipthongs
----------
making 38 phoneme
Three Ways Canadian Consonants can be distinguished
1. Place or Articulation: Where sound is made.
2. Manner of Articulation: How the sound is made.
3. Voicing: Whether or not the vocal cords vibrate.
Voicing
When the vocal cords vibrate
~ All English vowels are voiced
~ English Consonsants can be voiced or unvoiced
Vowel
Sound produced when there is no obstruction affecting the flow of air.
~There are 11 vowel sounds in Standard Canadian English.
What makes one Vowel different from another
1. Tongue Position
- High, mid, low
- front, central, back
2. Lip Position
- Rounded or spread
3. Muscle Quality
- Tense or lax
Off-Glides
A slight movement of the tongue used in tense vowels.
Are ofther written with semi vowels
ie
/iy/ as in b-ea-t
/ey/ as in b-ai-t
/ow/ as in b-oa-t
/uw/ as in b-oo-t
Critical Hypothesis Theory
This hypothesis holds that languages are learned differently by children and adults, and that this is a direct result of maturation of the brain.
Phonology
The description of the sound system of a language
Semi-Vowels /Glides/
Consonants sounds make with a relatively wide open mouth
Liquids
Pronunciation of these sounds involves air passing through in a fluid manner
1) lateral /r/
2) Retroflex /l/
Nasal
Sounds made by air through the nose.
Affricates
Complex consonant sounds
/d3/
Fricatives
Sounds made by a partial obstruction of the airstream.
Velar
Sounds made withe the back of the tongue and the soft palate
Alveo-Palatal
Sounds made with the blade of the tongue and the hard palate
Alveolar
Sounds made with the tip of the tongue and the tooth ridge
Interdental
Sounds made wit the tip of the tongue and the teeth
Places where the airstream is obstructed
1) Teeth
2) Tooth (alvelar) ridge
3) Hard Palate
4) Soft Palate (velum)
5) Glottis
6) Uvula
Manner of Articulation
The way in which the air steam is obstructed
Place of Articulation
Where in the mouth the air stream is obstructed
Labiodental
Sounds made with lower lip and upper teeth.
/f/, /v/
Bilabial
Sounds made with both lips
/p/, /b/, /m/
Tongue Height
Whether the tongue is high or low in the mouth.
Frontness/ Backness of Tongue
Whether the front or the back of the tongue is involved
Tenseness/ Laxness
Whether the muscles are tense or lax
Lip Rounding
Whether the lips are rounded
Assimilation
When one consonant is linked to another and the two effect each other in interesting ways.
Consonant Deletion
The phenomena where consonants are deleted out of a word in spoken language.
ie Textbook-texbook
Intonation Patterns in English
1) Rising-Falling, used for statements, commands, wh-questions.
2) Rising, used for yes, no questions
3) Continuation-Rise, used when listing things
Juncture
A slight pause between words or groups of words.
Content words and function words in Phonology
The usual pattern in English is that content words are stressed and function words are unstressed.
Content words: express lexical meaning.
Function Words: express grammatical meaning
Stress-timed and Syllable-timed Languages
"Syllable-timed languages" allot the same length of time to each syllable in a sentence.
"Stress timed languages", spend longer on stressed syllables and less time on unstressed syllables.
Palatalization
A sound change that happens in English when an alveolar sound becomes alveoplatal under the influence of a following palatal sopund such as /y/
ie did you (changes to) didja
Linking
The blending together of wordswithin the same phrase or sentence, so that there is a smooth transition from one word to the next. The final sound of one word may seem to become part of the following word.
intonation
The pattern of pitch changes that we use when we speak.
AKA The melody of language.
Light and Dark /l/
The light /l/ occurs before a vowel and the dark /l/ occurs after a vowel
ie leak "light"- pull "dark"
Glottal Stop
A non-contrastive sound of English that involves blockage of the air at the glottis.
~ Differs from a glottalized /t/ in that the tongue doesn't touch the tooth ridge in its production.
Homophones
words that sound the same
ie putting- pudding
litre-leader
Aspiration
Burst of air which accompanies the voiceless stop consonants (/p/, /t/ and /k/) in certain positions in English.
The puff of air produced after a consonant
Past Tense Rule
1) If a verb ends with /t/ or /d/, the past tense is pronounced /ed/
2) If a verb ends with a voiced sound, the past tense is pronounced /d/
3) If a verb ends with a voiceless sound, the past tense is pronouned /t/
Plural Rule
1) If a noun ends with /s/,/z/,/3/ or /d3/ (sibilant sounds, the plural is pronounced /z/
2) If the noun ends with a voiced sound, the plural is pronouned /z/
3) If the noun ends with a voiceless sound, the plural is pronouned /s/
Major Stress
AKA Primary Stress
The syllable that is most stressed in the word.
Unstress
A syllable that is not stressed.
Schwa
Represented by an upside down /e/
Is the most commonly used vowels in English. Its a neutral used for unstressed syllables.
Minor Stress
A syllable which is neither unstressed nor has primary stress.
Vowel Reduction
This when in English the vowel in an unstressed syllable loses its distinctive characteristics and is reduced to a neutral vowel called schwa.
Minimal Pair
A pair of words which only differ by one phonome
ie bit- bet
pass-gas
Flapping
The tongue flaps against the alveolar ridge to produce /t/ and /d/
Not Flapped
Tea
riDe

Flapped
ciTy
riDer