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29 Cards in this Set

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Name the period : The first 14 Days (2 weeks) of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.
Germinal period.
So tell me, what takes place during the Germinal period?
-A cell mass develops from the zygote in the first few days.
-The blastocyst, now consisting of more cells, separates into two distinct masses after the first week.
-Outer cells form a "shell" that will become the placenta.
-Implantation might be achieved.
What's a blastocyst?
A cell mass that develops from the zygote in the first few days after conception.
What's a placenta?
The organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord. The placenta is attached to the wall of the pregnant woman's uterus.
What is the process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
Implantation
So tell me, what takes place during the Embryonic period?
The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop.
What is an embryo?
It is the former blastocyst that becomes a distinct being. The name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception.
What is the first sign of human body structure?
The first sign of a human body structure appears as a thin line called the primitive streak, down the middle of the embryo. The line becomes a neural tube 22 days after conception and eventually develops into the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
What happens between weeks 3-8?
In week 4, the head begins to take shape, heart begins to pulsate. By the 5th week, arms and legs appear. By the 8th week, it weighs 1gram and physical features are now more visible.
So tell me, what takes place during the Fetal period?
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the organs grow in size and mature in functioning.
What is a fetus?
The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth. Sexless, smaller than the thumb.
What happens in the fourth, fifth, and sixth months after conception?
The heartbeat becomes stronger and the cardiovascular system becomes more active. Digestive and excretory systems develop. Fingernails, toenails, and buds for teeth form and so does hair.
What happens between week 35-40?
The brain, lungs, and heart makes the full-term, newborn ready for life.
What are teratogens?
They are agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death.
What are behavioral tetratogens?
They are agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning.
What is the critical period?
Time in the early stages of an organism's life during which it displays a heightened sensitivity to certain environmental stimuli.
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, that may occur in the child of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant.
What is a sonogram?
A sonogram (ultrasound image of the fetus) is produced by using high-frequency sound waves to see if the fetus is developing normally.
What is aomniocentesis?
About half an ounce of the fluid inside the placenta is withdrawn at 16weeks. The cells are cultured and analyzed.
How is HIV-AIDs transferred to the fetus?
Through the mother. If the mother does not get treated for HIV-AIDs the fetus will get it and die.
What is the Apgar Scale?
The Apgar scale is a quick and widely used way for birth attendants to assess the baby's condition. The examiner checks five vital signs -- heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color and reflexes. Each are assigned of scored 0-2.
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage or death to the baby is called...
Anoxia, which literally means "no oxygen".
What does the WHO (Wold Health Organization) define Low Birthweight (LBW) as?
A body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds (2,500 grams).
What is a preterm birth?
A birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy have elapsed -- that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception. Baby is usually LBW.
What is the term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.
Small for Gestational Age (SGA)
What is postpartum depression (Baby Blues)?
A new mother's feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth.
What are the causes of postpartum depression?
Some causes are : preexisting depression, financial stress or marital problems.
What are the effects of smoking on the child?
It increases risk of malformations of limbs and urinary tract, and may affect the baby's lungs.
Should women use medicines when pregnant? Why or Why not?
No, avoid all medicines, whether prescriptions or over-the-counter, during pregnancy unless they are approved by a medical professional who knows about the pregnancy and is aware of the most recent research.