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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Achieved status
1. Achieved status
Status or social position based on a persons own accomplishments or a activity
2. Ascribed status
2. Ascribed status
Status that is assigned to a person; people have virtually no control over their ascribed status
3. Beliefs
3. Beliefs
Peoples convictions about what is true in the world – what exists, how things work, and how they relate to one another
4. Cultural relativity
4. Cultural relativity
View that human behavior patters can be understood only in the context of the culture in which they occur rather than through comparison with other cultures
5. Culture
5. Culture
Total lifestyle of a people, including all the behaviors, and material objects that they share. Culture is a learned social heritage that accumulates through time and is passed on to succeeding generations
6. Ethnocentrism
6. Ethnocentrism
Tendency to view one’s culture as the best and only proper way to live and to compare other cultures to one’s own standard
7. Diffusion
7. Diffusion
Explanations of behavioral changes seek their cause in the alteration
Of preferences and opportunities that result from either changes in positions that
Individuals occupy (individual social mobility) or from reshuffling of resources
Associated with a given social position (structural social mobility or redistribution of
Wealth)
8. Folkways
8. Folkways
Norms such as handshaking that are customary, popular, and widely performed but not required
9. Gemeinschaft
9. Gemeinschaft
Type of society in which social life is governed by personal, informal considerations, with tradition and custom prevailing
10. Gesellschaft
10. Gesellschaft
Type of society characterized by specializing, individualism, rationality, and impersonality
11. Groups
11. Groups
Collection of people who have awareness that they share something in common and who interact with one anther on the bases of interrelated statuses and roles
12. Ideal culture
12. Ideal culture
Culture that people claim to accept or wish existed
13. Impression managemen
13. Impression management
Effort to control meanings that others attach to our performance or to a situation
14. Internalization
14. Internalization
Process of incorporating beliefs, values, and norm’s into our personal codes of conduct to point that they seem to come from inside us instead of being dictated from the outside
15. Laws
15. Laws
Rules that have been formality codified and enacted by a political authority. Laws often reflect mores.
16. Master status
16. Master status
Statues central to peoples views of themselves and how others respond to them
17. Material culture
17. Material culture
All of the physical objects or artifacts, made or used by a people
18. Mores
18. Mores
Norms that are mandatory and that invoke strong feelings of right and wrong, their violation usually results in punishment
19. Nonmaterial culture
19. Nonmaterial culture
All the parts of culture that have no physical existences, such as language, ideas, knowledge, and behaviors
20. Norms
20. Norms
Expectation or rules of conduct that guide people’s behavior
21. Real culture
21. Real culture
Actual behavior of people in relation to the beliefs, values, and norms of their culture
22. Role set
22. Role set
All the rolls associated with a particular social status
23. Role Conflic
23. Role Conflict
Situation in which two or more roles a person must play are incompatible or inconsistent
24. Role strain
24. Role strain
Situation in which people have difficulty performing a role
25. Role taking
25. Role taking
Rehearsing in imagination how others perceive things and how they are likely to behave
26. Roles
26. Roles
Behavior expected of people who occupy a particular social status
27. Sanctions
27. Sanctions
Reward or punishment that people receive for conforming to or violating norms
28. Social institutions
28. Social institutions
Relatively stable cluster of statuses, roles, and groups that work together to fulfill some needs that all societies must satisfy
29. Social structure
29. Social structure
Organized pattern of social interactions and social relationships that exist in a group or society
30. Society
30. Society
Group of people who are relatively self-sufficient and who share a common territory and culture
31. Status
31. Status
Designated position in a group or society
32. Subculture
32. Subculture
Group within a culture that has some values, beliefs, and norms that are different from those of the larger culture
33. Values
33. Values
Conceptions of what is right and desirable that serve as criteria for choosing goals or behaviors
34. Hunting ,gathering societies
34. Hunting and gathering societies
A hunter-gatherer society is one whose primary subsistence method involves the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild, using foraging and hunting, without significant recourse to the domestication of either.
35. Postindustrial society
35. Postindustrial society
Societies that are dominated by a highly technological for of production and devote more attention to service industries, information production and economic consumption than they do to industrial production
36. Conflict theory
36. Conflict theory
In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions, each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. The theory is mostly applied to explain conflict between social classes, and in ideologies such as capitalism versus socialism.
37. Functionalism
37. Functionalism
In the social sciences, specifically sociology and sociocultural anthropology, functionalism (also called functional analysis) is a sociological perspective that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs. Later, it came to focus on the ways in which social institutions fill social needs, especially social stability. Functionalism is based around a number of key concepts. Firstly, society is viewed as a system – a collection of interdependent parts, with a tendency toward equilibrium. Secondly, there are functional requirements that must be met in a society for its survival
38. Interactionism
38. Interactionism
George Herbert Mead, as an advocate of pragmatism and the subjectivity of social reality, is regarded as being at the origin of this development. Herbert Blumer expanded on Mead's work and coined the term "Symbolic interactionism".
The social interaction is a face-to-face process consisting of actions, reactions, and mutual adaptation between two or more individuals. The interaction includes all language (including body language) and mannerisms. The goal of the social interaction is to communicate with others. If the interaction is in danger of ending before one intends it to, it can be conserved by conforming to the others' expectations, by ignoring certain incidents or by solving apparent problems. Erving Goffman underlines the importance of control in the interaction. One must attempt to control the others' behavior during the interaction, in order to attain the information one is seeking and in order to control the perception of one's own image. Important concepts in the field of interactionism include the "social role" and Goffman's "presentation of self".
39. Participant observation
39. Participant observation
Participant observation is a set of research strategies which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, often though not always over an extended period of time
40. Sociological
40. Sociological perspective
The sociological perspective is a particular way of approaching a phenomena common in sociology. It involves maintaining objectivity, not by divesting oneself of values, but by critically evaluating and testing ideas, and accepting what may be surprising or even displeasing based on the evidence. The sociological perspective often assumes that “official” explanations are incomplete or self-serving. It involves a conscious effort to go beyond the obvious and question what is accepted as true or common sense.
41. Auguste Comte
Father of Sociology, Positivism
A French thinker who coined the term "sociology." He is remembered for being the first to apply the scientific method to the social world
42. Erik Erikson
42. Erik Erikson
Stages of social development
43. Charles Horton Cooley
43. Charles Horton Cooley
Looking-glass self
44. Laud Humphreys
44. Laud Humphreys
Tearoom Trade, Issues in Ethics
45. Karl Marx
45. Karl Marx
Class struggle, foundation for conflict theory
46. George Herbert Mead
46. George Herbert Mead
Self = “I” & “me”
47. Robert K. Merton
47. Robert K. Merton
Latent & manifest functions
48. C. Wright Mills
Dorothy and W. I. Thomas
48. C. Wright Mills
Dorothy and W. I. Thomas
Definition of the situation
49. Thomas J. Sulliva
49. Thomas J. Sullivan
Author of text book
50. Max Weber
50. Max Weber
Value-free sociology