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38 Cards in this Set

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Accessory ossicles
os trigonum, supranaviculare, tibiale externum, peroneum, intermetatarseum
Accessory ossicles
Old united fractures or supernumary bones.

'Well-defined osseous densities'.
Painful accessory ossicle
os styloideum
Agenesis / hypogenesis
Lack of growth or underdevelopment embryologically(of bones)

Can lead to instability or stress

Usually found in posterior arch, but could occur anywhere in spine
Agenesis / hypoplasia
Lack of growth or underdevelopment

Most often C1 and mid to lower C spine.

Complete or partial

Stable or unstable
Sclerotic pedicles or anterior arch hypertrophy - signs of what?
Signs of altered stress - the spine is unstable
Bipartite / multipartite patella caused by...
Patellar centres failing to unite

Superolateral corner most often

80% of cases are bilateral
Bipartite sesamoids found where?
1st MTP j - there is a 'lucent cleft'

(Lucent means radiographically less dense, i.e. not as white as bone)
Calcification of iliolumbar ligaments
Occasional

Calcification of ligaments between L5 TP and iliac crest

Unilateral or bilateral

Complete or partial
Calcification of iliolumbar ligaments - other Ddx?
L5 TP hypertrophy or severe rogering
Carpal coalition - what is it?
Failure of carpal bones to separate (but looks like they fused). Probably good for punching people in the face

Usually 2 bones in the wrist
Carpal coalition - most common bones involved?
Lunate and triquetrum

Can be in same carpal row (isolated finding)

Can be across carpal rows - (results from dysplasia)

Dysplasia means abnormality of development
Cervical ribs
'Overgrown' remnant costal processes that normally belong to cervical TPs

Normally assymptomatic but can cause TOS - cervicobrachial pain and pain radiating up back of neck due to nerve compression between cervical rib and scalenus anticus muscle - (where the hell is that pal)?
Cervical ribs - which level most commonly affected?
C7

May be large enough to articulate with first ribs! (Freakshow)!
Congenital block vertebrae is...
Failure of vertebrae to separate embryologically
Congenital block vertebrae affects which part of vertebrae?
Body, arch or both
Congenital block vertebrae - 4 radiographic findings?
1. Rudimentary disk, sometimes with calcification (no need to get offended)

2. Wasp-waist deformity (anterior concavity at mid-point of block)

3. Posterior element involvement (don't ask me pal)!

4. Height of block is the same as 2 normal vertebrae
Congenital block vertebrae - How many vertebrae involved?
Can be > 2

Sometimes small IVFs
Congenital block vertebrae can predispose to...
DJD
What is DJD?
Degenerative Joint Disease
Fabella is...
Sesamoid bone in lateral head of gastroc
Facet tropism is...
Assymetrically oriented facets, although both may be turned

Often L5/S1
Fifth toe fusion is...
Missing DIP in 5th toe, so only 2 phalanges

I once knew someone who couldn't bend his thumb so he had '1st digit fusion' I suppose. He was wierd.
Hahn's fissures (of vertebral bodies) otherwise known as...
Vascular grooves (yeah baby yeah), i.e. grooves where vessels run. I dunno, I guess.
Hahn's fissures are visible in which radiographic view?
Lateral view, as 2 parallel sclerotic lines with a lucency between them (where the vessels are I suppose)
Hahn's fissures - when do you get them?
Young children/infants, occasionally persist through to adulthood if you're still a child (Paul Hem)
Hemivertebrae happens when...
Part of a vertebral body does not form. Others around it become deformed in an attempt to accomodate for it
Hemivertebrae - what types?
Lateral hemi - chondrification centre fails to form
Ventral hemi - Posterior ossification centre fails to form
Dorsal hemi - Anterior centre fails to form
Hemivertebrae can lead to what sort of deformity?
Severe scoliosis - structural
Structural scoliosis will not disappear during which ortho test?
Supported Adams
Hyperplastic transverse process - where do you get them?
C7 - may get confused with cervical ribs, TPs stick out further than T1 TPs.

C4-6 - anterior tubercles of adjacent TPs grow towards each other and form accessory articulations

C1 - TPs enlarge and fuse with occiput - decreased ROM.
Hyperplastic means...
They grow too much
Hypoplastic / absent patella
Kneecap aint there, bummer - cartilaginous centres didn't ossify. Might be there but just small (like parts of DB's anatomy)
Knife-clasp deformity
Spina bifida occulta of S1 (what the hell's that)?
Knife-clasp deformity - (Spina bifida occulta of S1)
Failure of laminae of S1 to fuse leaving spinal cord exposed

S1 tubercle attaches to L5 SP making it longer. May hurt in extreme extension
Nuchal bones
Calcification in nuchal ligament posterior to cervical SPs

Assoc with DISH? (Diffuse Idiopathic skeletal Hypertrophy)
Nuclear endplate impressions
Indentation of endplates of vertebral bodies, usually inf.
Lx most common, then Cx
'Cupid's bow' on AP view
Occipitalisation
Occiput and C1 have not separated during development
C1 may be part of occiput and not visible
Can be ok or cause of dysplastic conditions