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44 Cards in this Set

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Odontoid anomalies - types?
Odontoid agenesis and hypogenesis

Os odontoideum

Both types can cause instability
Odontoid agenesis is...
Complete or partial failure of development of the odontoid process
Os odontoideum is...
Ununited dens fracture or developmental problem
Os acetabulum is when...
Secondary growth centre of acetabulum fails to unite
Os acetabulum - where is the small to medium-sized ossicle?
Lateral margin of acetabulum
Ossiculum terminale
Secondary ossification centre at the top of the dens doesn't unite
Paraglenoid sulci
Grooves in inferior ilia next to SI jj.

Bilateral or unilateral
Paraglenoid sulci - which gender most affected?
Females. But don't worry - no clinical significance!
Patella cubiti - what is it?
Sesamoid bone
Patella cubiti - where is it?
Triceps tendon
Soft tissues behind humerus or olecranon ('cubitus' = elbow)
Pectus carinatum otherwise known as...
Pigeon chest, sternum bows outwards
Pectus excavatum - otherwise known as...
Funnel chest

Sternum indented distally
Pectus excavatum - complication?
Heart compression causing murmur
Polydactyly
Marylyn Monroe - more than 5 fingers or toes - isolated anomaly or dysplasia
Posterior ponticle is calcification / ossification of what?
Posterior atlanto-occipital lig
Usually bilat
Rare cause of VBAI?
Rib anomalies
Fused ribs
Srb's anomaly - fusion of 1st and 2nd ribs
Forked ribs (from fork attacks)
Fenestrated ribs
Cervical ribs
Sprengel's deformity - involves what bone?
Scapula - undescended - inf portion should line up with T7 but is higher. Usually unilat
Sprengel's deformity - associated with conditions like...
Klippel-Feil syndrome (20-25% of cases)
Sprengel's deformity - sometimes associated with ossification of medial scapula muscles - a condition called what?
'Omovertebral bone'
Spina bifida occulta affects which C vertebrae the most?
C1 then C7
Spina bifida occulta - which rad view confirms it?
Lat - you see absence of spinolaminar line - (vertebrae failed to 'close up' properly during development)
Spina bifida occulta - also affects which other vertebrae?
T1, T12
L5, S1
May also find other anomalies in other areas
Stylohyoid ligament calcification
Usually assymptomatic.
Lig runs between styloid processes and hyoid bone
Subacromial spur
Bony growth on inferior aspect of acromion

Assoc w shoulder impingement syndrome
Supernumerary (extra) epiphyses - more common in the hand or foot?
Hand - 2nd metacarpal base.
Length of bone unaffected
Supernumerary epiphyses - what are they?
Extra epiphyses in short tubular bones
Tarsal coalition is...
Fusion of any tarsal bones
Tarsal coalition - most common bones affected?
Talus/calcaneus
Calcaneus/navicular
Tarsal coalition - signs/symptoms...
Pain
Chronic ankle inversion injuries
DJD of tarsal jj
Transitional lumbosacral segments
Occur at transitional areas, especially L5/S1
Transitional lumbosacral segments
S1 forming an 'L6'
L5 forming extra S segment
Disc may develop partially/completely
Transitional lumbosacral segments
Sometimes extra segments are so well formed they are indistinguishable from a normal segment
Transitional lumbosacral segments - shouldn't use the terms...
Lumbarisation, pseudolumbarisation, sacralisation
(Why the hell not pal)?
Transitional lumbosacral segments - functionally lumbar when...
TP's not attached to sacrum
Transitional lumbosacral segments - functionally sacral when...
TP's fused to sacrum
Transitional lumbosacral segments - accessory articulation when...
TP forms a j with sacrum
Transitional lumbosacral segments - clinically insignificant if...
Minor transition or complete transition
Transitional lumbosacral segments - clinically significant if...
Only unilat fusion - altered biomechanics and possible degeneration causing symptoms
Transitional lumbosacral segments - 'far-out' syndrome is...
When you do too much diazepam due to exam stress
Not really - 'far-out' syndrome is...
When a nerve root is entrapped by a large TP
Transitional thoracolumbar segment - may be missing what?
12th ribs, but you might see lumbar ribs at L1! (Freakshow)
Usually insignificant
Ununited apophyses - where?
Elbow growth centres
Ulnar styloid
Ununited apophyses - what are they?
Where secondary growth centres have failed to fuse to parent bone
Ununited apophyses - confused with what other ddx?
Fracture