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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe the anatomical position.
Body is erect (standing or supine). Head/eyes, palms, feet are facing forward, with upper limbs hanging at side.
Describe the 3 major anatomical planes.
1. MEDIAN (midsagittal): Divides body into right and left halves. SAGITTAL (parasagittal) = plane parallel to median.
2. CORONAL (frontal): perpendicular to median; divides body into anterior and posterior portions.
3. TRANSVERSE (horizontal): divides body into superior and inferior portions.
*OBLIQUE: any plane other than those above
Describe functions of bone.
1. Support body in erect position.
2. Protect of organs/tissues.
3. Participate in movement (form joints, provide leverage for muscles)
4. House red marrow (hemopoietic elements).
5. Store minerals: especially CALCIUM and PHOSPHATE.
Describe developmental classification of bone.
1. CARTILAGE (ENDOCHONDRAL) BONES: preformed by cartilage; cartilage ossifies = converted to bone. ex: humerus, most long bones of upper extremity.
2. MEMBRANE BONES: ossify directly from mesenchyme; no intermediate cartilaginous stage.
Describe regional classification of the skeleton.
1. AXIAL SKELETON: bones that form main axis of body: skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs.
2. APPENDICULAR SKELETON: bones of appendages, including upper/lower limb proper, pectoral girdle, clavicle, scapula, hip bones.
Describe 3 major types of joints.
1. FIBROUS JOINTS: Joined by fibrous tissue; allow little or no movement. e.g., sutures of skull.
2. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS: Bones are joined by cartilage. e.g., IV discs, epiphyseal plates.
3. SYNOVIAL JOINTS: permit free movement at different degrees. Bones joined by joint (articular) capsule. e.g., knee.
Describe the architecture of a synovial joint.
Bones are united by JOINT(ARTICULAR) CAPSULE (outer fibrous layer lined by serous SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE)enclosing an ARTICULAR CAVITY (a potential space) containing small amount of SYNOVIAL FLUID (secreted by synovial membrane to lubricate/nourish tissues). ARTICULAR CARTILAGE covers articular surfaces of bones (rest is lined with synovial membrane). Periosteum of bones fuses with joint capsule.
Define 3 functional classifications of synovial joints. Provide examples.
1. UNIAXIAL: moves along one axis; e.g., hinge-joint of elbow allows only flexion/extension.
2. BIAXIAL: allows movement about 2 different axes; e.g., wrist joint allows flexion/extension and abduction/adduction but no rotation.
3. MULTIAXIAL: allows movement about all 3 axes; e.g., shoulder.
List types of fibrous joints.
1. Sutures of cranium
2. Syndesmosis(-es)
3. Gomphosis (-es) (Dentoalveolar syndesmosis)
Describe sutures of cranium.
Bones are very close together, interlocking along wavy line or overlapping. No movement. May later ossify.
What is a syndesmosis?
Partially movable joint; an interosseous membrane (sheet of fibrous tissue), either ligament or fibrous membrane, unites bones. e.g., between radius and ulna.
What is a gomphosis?
AKA, dentoalveolar syndesmosis. Connects root of tooth to bone of alveolus. Mobility (loose tooth) is pathologic, but microscopic movements give proprioceptive info.
Discuss the 2 types of skeletal muscle attachments.
1. ORIGIN: end that remains fixed during contraction; usually the proximal end*.
2. INSERTION: end that moves during contraction; usually the distal end*.
*Some muscles can act in both directions under different circumstances.
Briefly describe a cartilaginous joint.
Articulating structures are united by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
List 4 functions of skeletal muscle.
1. produce locomotion
2. provide static support
3. give form to body
4. provide heat
List 2 types of cartilaginous joints.
1. Synchondrosis (primary cartilaginous joint)
2. Symphysis (secondary cartilaginous joint)
Describe the 2 main structural components of skeletal muscle.
1. FLESHY CONTRACTILE PORTION: belly, or head; fibers shorten upon stimulation to produce movement; rich blood supply; very metabolically active; low tensile strength (77 lbs/sq in)*.
2. FIBROUS COMPONENT: part that attaches to bone; cylindrical = TENDON; flat sheet = APONEUROSIS; not contractile; poor blood supply; low metabolic activity; high tensile strength (18,000 lbs/sq in)*.
*So muscle tear usually happens in fleshy part, not tendon.
What is a synchondrosis? Describe an example.
AKA, Primary cartilaginous joint. Joined by HYALINE CARTILAGE. Generally temporary joints, such as those present during development. E.g., in long bone, such as femur: EPIPHYSEAL PLATE(cartilage) intervenes between epiphysis (bone) and shaft (bone) is site of bone growth.
What is an aponeurosis?
Flat, broad sheet of tendons formed by some muscles. Attaches to bone, deep fascia, or another aponeurosis.
What is a symphysis? Provide an example.
Strong, slightly movable joint united by FIBROCARTILAGE. E.g., intervertebral (IV) discs.
List 6 structural categories of synovial joints.
Discuss terms describing movement about 3 axes of synovial membranes.
1. FLEXION/EXTENSION: movement around a horizontal axis.
2. ABDUCTION/ADDUCTION: movement around an anterior-posterior axis.
3. MEDIAL/LATERAL ROTATION: movement around a vertical axis.
Define flexion/extension.
Flexion = decreasing the joint angle (e.g., bending at waist to touch toes; bending the leg). Extension = increasing the joint angle (standing back up; straightening the leg).
What is a tubercle?
Small, raised eminence. Usually tendon attaches to bone at distinct tubercles.
Describe pennate skeletal muscle. List 3 types.
"Feather-like" muscle whose fibers run oblique to long axis of the muscle; more fibers than strap muscles, so pennate are stronger. However, pennate fibers are shorter.
Define abduction/adduction.
Abduction = away from midline (e.g., spread legs)
**(ABDUCT=to kidnap or take somebody AWAY!)
Adduction = toward midline (e.g., squeeze legs together)
Describe strap muscle.
Fibers are oriented parallel to the long axis of the muscle. Have longer fibers than pennate muscles (but pennate muscles are stronger because they have more fibers).
List 6 types of muscle based on architecture.
1. flat
2. pennate
3. fusiform
4. quadrate
5. circular (sphincteral)
6. multi-headed (multi-bellied)
Define motor unit.
Functional unit of a muscle. Composed of a motor neuron, including its axon, and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
Discuss the significance of motor unit size.
Size of motor unit varies widely. Smaller number of muscle fibers* = smaller motor unit = fine motor control and less strength.
Larger number of muscle fibers = larger motor unit = gross movement and more strength.
*Motor unit contain as few as 3 muscle fibers!
Describe 3 categories of skeletal muscle contraction.
1. REFLEXIVE CONTRACTION: automatic activity, including respiratory movements of the diaphragm (may be consciously controlled to some extent) and MYOTATIC REFLEXES (e.g., patellar reflex)
2. TONIC CONTRACTION: slight contraction that does not produce movement or active resistance; present even in "relaxed" muscles; MUSCLE TONE (TONUS) = muscle firmness. Almost always present except in deep sleep, general anesthesia, or loss of innervation.
3. PHASIC CONTRACTION: "active" contraction
Describe 4 functional categories of muscle.
1. PRIME MOVER (AGONIST): Main muscle responsible for movement. Contracts concentrically, expends the most energy. Sometimes there are two prime movers.
2. FIXATOR: Steadies proximal parts of limb through isometric contraction while movement occurs distally; i.e., stabilize joint.
3. SYNERGIST: Complements action of prime mover.
4. ANTAGONIST: Opposes action of another muscle.
List 5 techniques of determining muscle function.
1. anatomical method
2. palpation
3. electrical stimulation
4. electromyography
5. clinical method
Describe 2 differences in appearances of arteries and veins in lab.
1. Tunica media (circumferential smooth muscle wall) of arteries are thicker, more rigid in arteries than in veins. Therefore, arteries often more circular in cross-section; veins tend to collapse on themselves, have flattened appearance.
2. Arteries may appear whiter; veins may appear darker. But there are exceptions!
Name two factors responsible for venous return to the heart.
1. Negative pressure in thorax during inspiration sucks blood back to heart.
2. Musculovenous pump
Describe the musculovenous pump.
When muscles (e.g., in lower limbs) contract, they bulge, and the pressure they exert on veins pushes blood back to the heart. Veins of limbs have bicuspid "one-way" valves that prevent blood from flowing back away from the heart.
What causes varicose veins?
When veins lose elasticity, they become weak and dilate under the pressure of supporting a column of blood against gravity. These veins become swollen, twisted. Valve cusps (valves are incompetent) do not meet or have been destroyed by inflammation; so blood column is uninterrupted, increasing pressure on already weak veins, further dilating them, exacerbating problem.
Define anastomosis and collateral circulation.
Anastomosis is the joining together of blood vessels (arteries or veins) or nerves. So if one artery is occluded or ligated, alternate COLLATERAL CIRCULATION exists; other arteries supply that tissue. Collateral circulation may be able to expand to meet needs of tissue if main artery occluded, but may take enough time such that cannot handle sudden occlusion or ligation of main artery.
Define end artery. What is the significance of an end artery?
AKA, ANATOMICAL or TRUE TERMINAL artery. Does not anastamose with other arteries. If end artery ligated/obstructed, tissue it supplies will become necrotic.
Define angiography.
Radiopaque dye injected into vessel, and vessel then visualized radiographically. Can reveal aneurysm or presence of plaque or buildup in vessel (causes vessel to narrow).
What is are the most highly anatomically variable structures.
Blood vessels, especially veins.