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43 Cards in this Set

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A type of DNS data record that maps the IP address of an Internet-connected device to its domain name.
Address Resource Record
A nickname for a node’s host name. Aliases can be specified in a local host file.
Alias
The protocol suite used to interconnect Mac computers.
Appletalk
A unique 16-bit number that identifies the network to which an AppleTalk node is connected.
AppleTalk network number
A unique 8-bit or 16-bit number that identifies a computer on an AppleTalk network.
AppleTalk node ID
A logically defined group of computers on an AppleTalk network.
AppleTalk zone
Address Resolution Protocol. A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI Model. ARP obtains the MAC address of a host, or node, and then creates a local database that maps the MAC address to the host’s IP address
ARP
A database of records that map MAC addresses to IP addresses. The ARP table is stored on a computer’s hard disk where it is used by the ARP utility to supply the MAC addresses of network nodes, given their IP addresses.
ARP Table
The process of assigning one network component to work with another.
Binding
Bootstrap Protocol. An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that uses a central list of IP addresses and their associated devices’ MAC addresses to assign IP addresses to clients dynamically. BOOTP was the precursor to DHCP.
BOOTP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that manages the dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network. Using DHCP to assign IP addresses can nearly eliminate duplicate-addressing problems.
DHCP
Domain Name System or Domain Name Service. A hierarchical way of tracking domain names and their addresses, devised in the mid-1980s. The DNS database does not rely on one file or even one server, but rather is distributed over several key computers across the Internet to prevent catastrophic failure if one or a few computers go down. DNS is a TCP/IP service that belongs to the Application layer of the OSI model.
DNS
A record in an ARP table that is created when a client makes an ARP request that cannot be satisfied by data already in the ARP table.
Dynamic ARP table entry
TCP/IP ports in the range of 49152 through 65535, which are open for use without requiring administrative privileges on a host or approval from IANA.
Dynamic ports
The response signal sent by a device after another device pings it.
Echo reply
The request for a response generated when one device pings another device.
Echo request
Internet Control Message Protocol. A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that notifies the sender that something has gone wrong in the transmission process and that packets were not delivered.
ICMP
Internet Group Management Protocol or Internet Group Multicast Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol used to manage multicast transmissions. Routers use IGMP to determine which nodes use IGMP to join or leave a multicast group.
IGMP
IP version 4 Link Local. A protocol that manages automatic address assignment among locally connected nodes. IPv4LL is part of the Zeroconf group of protocols.
IPvLL
IP version 4. Current standard for IP addressing that specifies 32-bit addresses composed of four octets.
IPv4
A newer standard of IP addressing that will replace IPv5. Uses newer, more efficient header in its packets and allows for 128-bit source and destination IP addresses.
IPv6
Internetwork Packet Exchange. A core protocol of the IPX/SPX suite that operates at the Network layer of the OSI Model and provides routing and internetwork services, similar to IP in the TCP/IP suite.
IPX
An address assigned to a device on an IPX/SPX based network.
IPX address
Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange. Protocol originally developed by Xerox, Modified and adopted by Novell for NetWare network operating system.
IPX/SPX
NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface. The Microsoft adaptation of the IBM NetBIOS protocol. NetBEUI expands on NetBIOS by adding a Transport layer component. NetBEUI is a fast and efficient protocol that consumes few network resources, provides excellent error correction, and requires little configuration.
NetBEUI
Network Basic Input Output System. A protocol to provide Transport and Session layer services for applications running on small, homogeneous networks.
NetBIOS
Network News Transport Protocol. An Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite which facilitates the exchange of newsgroup messages, or articles, between multiple servers and users.
NNTP
Network Time Protocol. A simple Application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite used to synchronize the clocks of computers on a network. NTP depends on UDP for Transport layer services.
NTP
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that belongs in the Network layer of the OSI Model. RARP relies on the RARP table to associate the IP address of a node with its MAC address. RARP can be used to supply IP addresses to diskless workstations.
RARP
TCP/IP ports in the range of 1024 to 49151. These ports are accessible to network users and processes that do not have special administrative privileges. Default assignments of these ports must be registered with IANA.
Registered ports
Any host on the Internet that needs to look up domain name information.
Resolver
The element of a DNS database stored on a name server that contains information about TCP/IP host names and their addresses.
Resource Record
A DNS server maintained by ICANN and IANA that is an authority on how to contact the top-level domains, such as those ending with .com, .edu, .net, .us, and so on. ICANN oversees the operation of 13 root servers around the world.
Root server
Protocols that can span more than one LAN because they carry Network layer and addressing information that can be interpreted by a router.
Routable
A logical address assigned to a specific process running on a computer. Some sockets are reserved for operating system functions.
Socket
Sequenced Packet Exchange. One of the core protocols in the IPX/SPX suite. SPX belongs to the Transport layer of the OSI Model and works in tandem with IPX to ensure that data are received whole, in sequence, and error free.
SPX
A record in an ARP table that someone has manually entered using the ARP utility. Static ARP table entries remain the same until someone manually modifies them with the ARP utility.
Static ARP table entry
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. A TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers. Unlike FTP, TFTP relies on UDP at the Transport layer and does not require a user to log on to the remote host.
TFTP
Time To Live. A number that indicates the maximum time that a datagram or packet can remain on the network before it is discarded. Although this field was originally meant to represent units of time, on modern networks it represents the number of router hops a datagram has endured. The TTL for datagrams is variable and configurable, but is usually set at 32 or 64. Each time a datagram passes through a router, its TTL is reduced by 1. When a router receives a datagram with a TTL equal to 1, the router discards that datagram.
TTL
User Datagram Protocol. A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that sits in the Transport layer of the OSI Model. UDP is a connectionless transport service.
UDP
TCP/IP port numbers 0 to 1023, so named because they were long ago assigned by Internet authorities to popular services (such as FTP and Telnet) and are frequently used
Well Known Ports
Windows Internet Naming Service. A service that resolves NetBIOS names with IP addresses. WINS is used exclusively with systems that use NetBIOS therefore, it is found on Windows systems
WINS
Zero Configuration. A collection of protocols designed by the IETF to simplify the setup of nodes on a TCP/IP network. Zeroconf assigns a node an IP address, resolves the node’s host name and IP address without requiring a DNS server, and discovers services, such as print services, available to the node, also without requiring a DNS server.
ZeroConf