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193 Cards in this Set

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Tense is a form of the verb that?
Expresses the time in our sentences - present, past, or future.
None
Sometimes, “tense” can indicate the continuation or completeness of an action?
In relation to the time of speaking or writing.
The present tense can be expressed in?
The present simple, present continuous (progressive), the present perfect or the present perfect continuous (progressive).
The past tense can be expressed in?
The past simple, the past continuous (progressive), the past perfect or the past perfect continuous (progressive)
The future tense can be expressed in?
The future simple, the future continuous (progressive), the future perfect or the future perfect continuous (progressive)
None
The tense that describes things or situations that happen every year, always, every day, usually, habitually or sometimes is known as?
The present simple tense. [(I go to school by subway every day. – (This is my everyday activity.)]
What are the two basic forms for the present simple tense?
One ends with -s and the other doesn´t.
Personal pronouns in first person singular and plural are?
I and WE.
Personal pronouns in second person singular and plural are?
YOU and YOU.
Personal pronouns in the third person singular and plural are?
HE/SHE/IT and THEY.
When referring to himself or herself, the speaker uses I, which is?
The first person singular.
When the speaker is referring to a group of people including him or herself, WE is used, which is?
The first person plural.
When referring to the addressee(s), YOU is used, which is?
The second person singular or plural.
The archaic form of YOU, in the singular, is?
THOU. (The second-person singular pronoun.)
Any person place or thing other than the speaker and the addressed is referred to in?
The third person either singular or plural.
Using the word ‘walk’ what is the third person plural in the present simple affirmative tense?
They walk.
Using the word ‘walk’ what is the second person singular for the present simple interrogative tense?
Do you walk?
Using the word ‘walk’ what is the first person plural for the present simple negative tense?
We don’t walk.
When the subject is third person singular we need we to add to the verb?
-s to the verb.
When verbs end in -y and the subject is in the third person, the -y changes to?
-ies (hurry to hurries or deny to denies)
If there is a vowel before the –y and the subject is in the third person singular, the verb adds?
Just an –s ending (employ to employs or buy or buys)
When verbs end in -ss, -sh, -x, -ch, or –o and the subject is in the third person singular?
Add –es. (express to expresses, wash to washes, mix to mixes, watch to watches, go to goes)
When forming negative and interrogative sentences in the simple present what auxiliary verb is used?
Do/does.
When forming negative and interrogative sentences in the simple present and the subject is first person (I, we), second person (you), or third person plural (they), what is the structure of the sentence?
Subject + don’t +main verb for negative and Do + subject + main verb for interrogative
When forming negative and interrogative sentences in the simple present and the subject is Third person singular (he, she, it), what is the structure of the sentence?
Subject + doesn’t +main verb for negative and Does + subject + main verb for interrogative
To form WH- questions, we put an interrogative pronoun (what, which, who) or an interrogative adverb (why, when, where, how) at the beginning, followed by?
An auxiliary verb, except Be. [WH-word + Do/Does + Subject + Main Verb (bare infinitive)]
For the verb Be, do we need an auxiliary?
No. [Subject + Be(is, am, are) + Not. Be (is, am, are) + Subject]
Can we use the present simple to talk about habitual activities and daily routines?
Yes. [He flies to Washington once a week. (habitual activity) I usually go to school by subway. (daily routine)]
When I want to talk about general facts or truths, I can use?
The simple present. [My sister runs fast. (fact) Light travels faster than sound. (truth)]
Can I use the simple present, when I want to express emotions or show opinions?
Yes. (I like music. He hates traveling. I think it’s a good idea. Does he agree with you?
Is the simple present useful for timetables or schedules and instructions or directions?
Yes. (When does the bus leave for the airport? The train from Waterloo arrives at 5 p.m. Most banks open at 9:00 am. You spread the chocolate jam over one slice of bread and then you put it…. You walk along the road and then you turn right at the second corner.)
To show frequency in the present simple, we can use?
Adverbs of frequency.
ALWAYS, USUALLY, OFTEN, SOMETIMES, OCCASIONALLY, RARELY (SELDOM), HARDLY EVER, and NEVER are examples of what type of adverbs?
Adverbs of frequency.
An adverb of frequency can usually be placed?
Directly before the main verb in the present simple. (I often go shopping with Jane. He always walks to school. She never drives to the office.)
The present simple verb BE is used, the adverb of frequency is placed?
Directly after the verb Be. (She’s always late for meetings.)
When a modal verb is involved along with a main verb in the present simple, the adverb of frequency?
Goes after the modal verb and before the main verb. (You can never use my computer.)
CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST, NEED, and DARE are examples of what type of verb?
Modal verb.
If we want to begin a sentence with “rarely, seldom, never”, what should be done with the subject and the auxiliary verb?
Invert them. (Rarely does he play soccer.)
The present simple is used with verbs which express states, i.e., they describe?
Conditions or situations that exist. (This apple smells good. I have a big truck. I like your dress.)
When verbs have stative meanings, are they are usually used in continuous tenses?
No. (DON’T SAY: This apple is smelling good. I’m having a big truck. I’m liking your dress.)
The most widely used stative verbs of cognition are?
Know, believe, understand, remember, mean, realize, and recognize.
Own, belong, possess are the most widely used stative verbs of?
Possession.
The most widely used stative verbs of like and dislikesare?
Adore, love, prefer, hate, detest, loathe, appreciate, like, and dislike.
Other widely used stative verbs include?
Hear, seem, need, want, cost, sound, look like, exist, consist of, matter, equal, and resemble.
Sometimes stative verbs can use either the simple present or present continuous, but what will likely happen to the meaning?
It will change. (The girl is smelling the flowers. They’re having lunch in the kitchen.)
To give the idea that an action is in progress in the present, what tense should be used?
Present Continuous [They're playing soccer in the park. (The game has begun
To form the present participle of verbs, add?
Add –ing to the bare infinitive. (Walk to walking, write to writing. For the verbs ending with -e, omit –e and then add –ing.)
What two parts compose the present continuous tense?
BE (in present) + main verb (in present participle).
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the affirmative present continuous statement in second person singular form of BE in the present?
You are walking.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative present continuous statement in the third person plural form of BE in the present?
They are not walking.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the interrogative present continuous statement in the first person plural form of BE in the present?
Are we walking?
Do we use the present continuous to talk about actions that are happening at the moment of speaking?
Yes. [She’s cooking now. (At the moment I’m speaking, the action is going on.)]
To talk about temporary actions that are happening for a period of time around now, but not exactly at the moment we speak, what tense should we use?
Present continuous. [Are you looking for a job these days? (At the moment I’m asking, he may be doing something else, like going shopping, or having lunch, but the activity “looking for a job” is going on for some time around now.)]
When describing common often occurring actions such express anger, irritation or complaint, can the present continuous be used?
Yes, [He’s always complaining about the weather in Toronto. (I’m tired of his complaint. I think if he doesn’t like it, he could move to another city.)]
When you talk about a planned future event that will happen at a particular time later than now and there is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, and that some preparation has already happened, what tense can be used?
Present continuous. [He’s leaving for Tokyo tomorrow. (He has already bought the plane ticket.)]
When you talk about a planned future event that will happen at a particular time later than now and the event is part of a schedule or timetable, what tense is often used?
A present simple tense is often used. [We have our Wednesday teacher's meeting. (Since we have a teacher's meeting every Wednesday, we use the present simple tense.)]
Does the use of a present tense always refer to present time?
No. [I hope it rains tomorrow. ("rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time, i.e., tomorrow. We're moving at the end of this month. ("moving" is present continuous, but it refers here to future time (at the end of this month))
When something happened before the present time and the exact time when it happened is unimportant, we can use?
The present perfect. [She has cleaned her room. (She isn't cleaning the room now because the action "cleaning" has already finished.)]
In the present perfect a link is indicated between the present and the past, i.e., the time of the action is?
Before now but not specified.
In the present perfect what are we often more interested in than the action itself?
The result than in the action itself.
The composition of the present perfect is?
Auxiliary verb “have/has” + a verb in past participle.
How do different subjects affect different auxiliary verbs?
If the subject is plural (we, you, they) or first/second person singular (I, you), it takes “have”, but if it is third person singular (he, she, it), it takes “has”.
What must be done to a regular verb to form its past participle?
Add –ed to the end of the verbs. [Cook to cooked. (If the regular verbs ends with –e, then add –d. (dance to danced. For irregular verbs, check dictionary)]
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the interrogative present perfect statement when the subject is in the third person singular?
Has he walked?
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative present perfect statement when the subject is in the third person plural?
They have not walked.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the affirmative present perfect statement when the subject is in the first person singular?
I have walked.
Do we use the present perfect to talk about our past experiences that happened at an unstated time in the past?
Yes. [I’ve been to Thailand. (I’m talking about one of my past experiences. The definite time when it happened is unimportant.) The Smiths have moved to a new house. (The Smiths are now living in their new house. We don’t need to know when they moved in.)]
To talk about situations or actions that began in the past and continue up to now, we can use?
The present perfect. [He’s been in Toronto for ten years. (He is still in Toronto. This situation has been going on for ten years. Maybe it will continue or will not.)]
The present perfect can be used to talk about recent events that happened in the past, and the results are?
Visible now (present result). [You’ve changed your hairstyle. You look nice! (You changed your hairstyle yesterday, and you look good today, which is the result of the change that happened before.)]
For experiences up to now, we often use with the present perfect ever or never, which are placed?
Before the main verb (in past participle) (Have you ever played chess? Hasn’t Jimmy ever had a girlfriend? Nothing has ever changed. I’ve never heard of this song.
Can “never” be used together with “not”?
No. (We can’t say: I haven’t never heard of this song.)
To emphasize an action that has or hasn’t happened before now and express it in the present perfect we use?
Already and yet.
Already, when used with the present perfect, is usually in the affirmative suggesting that there is no need to repeat the same action and is often placed?
Between the auxiliary verb “have/has” and the main verb (in past participle. (He has already visited the CN Tower. Let’s go somewhere else.)
Yet, when used with the present perfect, is usually used in negative and interrogative sentences and is often placed at?
The end of the sentence. (I haven’t typed the letter yet. Has Mr. Smith signed the contract yet?)
What other adverbs that can be used in present perfect tense?
JUST, LATELY, and RECENTLY, etc. (I’ve just finished my homework. I’ve seen a great movie recently.)
Yet, when used with the present perfect, is usually used in negative and interrogative sentences and is often placed at?
The end of the sentence. (I haven’t typed the letter yet. Has Mr. Smith signed the contract yet?)
What other adverbs that can be used in present perfect tense?
JUST, LATELY, and RECENTLY, etc. (I’ve just finished my homework. I’ve seen a great movie recently.)
Using the present perfect tense, how do we can define a period of time before now or up to now by considering its duration or its starting point?
For duration, use: the preposition for + a period of time for the starting point, use: the preposition since + a point of time. (She has worked in Chicago for 6 years. She has worked in Chicago since she graduated from university.)
Is this sentence, “This is the most beautiful necklace I’ve ever seen”, an example of a present perfect structure?
Yes.
Is this sentence, “This is the first time I’ve taught English.”, an example of a present perfect structure?
Yes.
The present perfect continuous indicates that an action was in progress immediately before the present time and is used to express?
The duration of the event. [They've been waiting for two hours. (They began waiting in the past, this action continued up to now. The whole process lasts two hours.)]
The present perfect continuous is composed of what three parts?
Auxiliary verb (have/has) + been + verb in present participle.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the affirmative present perfect continuous statement when the subject is in the second person plural?
You have been walking since noon.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the interrogative present perfect continuous statement when the subject is in the third person plural?
Have they been walking since noon?
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative present perfect continuous statement when the subject is in the second person singular?
You have not been walking since noon.
Can we use the present perfect continuous to talk about actions that started in the past and continue up to now?
Yes. [I’ve been singing for the whole morning. (I’m still singing now.)]
To talk about some repeated actions up to now, you can use present?
Perfect Continuous. (I’ve been ringing the number all morning but nobody answers the phone.)
If you wish to talk about activities that started in the past but leave some evidence now, you can use?
The present perfect continuous tense. [Have you been sunbathing? (Just look at you skin.)]
Use the present perfect continuous when the process of an activity interests you more than?
The result. [She’s been cooking for two hours. (It’s really a heavy task.-process) She’s cooked a huge meal. (Many dishes are on the table.-result)]
What tense shows that something happened at one particular time in the past?
Past Simple. It began and ended in the past. [Susan bought a new car last Monday. ("last Monday" is a definite time in the past. Susan did something at that time. It began and ended on that day.)]
How do you form the past simple in the affirmative?
Subject + verb in past. (I walked.)
How do you form the past simple in the negative?
Subject + auxiliary (didn’t) + verb in base form (I didn’t walk.)
How do you form the past simple in the interrogative?
Auxiliary (Did) + subject + verb in base form (Did I walk?)
How do you form the past of regular verbs?
Add –ed to the end of most verbs or –d to verbs ending with –e. [Cook to cooked. dance to danced. (For past of irregular verbs, check dictionary)]
If a sentence contains when and has the past simple in both clauses, the actions in the when clause (subordinate clause of time) happens?
First. [Jack hid behind the tree when he saw his girlfriend. (Jack saw his girlfriend first, then he hid behind the tree.)]
In the simple past, the expression “used to” when trying to express?
Past habits or states which are now finished. [I used to drink a lot. (I don’t drink much any more. I’ve changed.) He used to be an actor (but he is no longer one)]
Is "used to" is considered verb in the past?
No. It is considered a semi-modal by some grammarians.
Does the structure “be + used + to + doing something” have the same purpose as the structure, “used to+ base form”?
No, the latter is talking about past habits or states, the former has to do with being in the habit of doing something.
When an action was in progress when something else happened in the past, what tense is used?
The past continuous . [I was reading the newspaper when the phone rang. (Say the phone rang at one o'clock. At that time the action "reading" was in progress. It had begun before one, and might continue after that.)]
The past continuous tense describes actions or events that began in the past and were still going on at a time before now, i.e., it expresses?
An unfinished or incomplete action in the past.
What are the two parts that comprise the past continuous?
Auxiliary "Be" in the past (was/were) + a verb in Present Participle (ing).
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative past continuous statement when the subject is in the third person plural?
They were not walking.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the interrogative past continuous statement when the subject is in the third person plural?
Were they walking?
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the affirmative past continuous statement when the subject is in the first person plural?
We were walking.
We use the past continuous to talk about an action that was in progress at a stated time in the past, but do we care when the action started or finished?
No. [Ryan was watching TV at 9 last night. (When Ryan began or finished watching is unimportant.)]
Do we use the past continuous to talk about an action that was in progress when another action interrupted it?
Yes.
When talking about an action that was in progress when another action interrupted it, we use the past continuous for the action in progress and the past simple for?
The action which interrupted it. (We were studying English when her Mum called. While I was walking in the street, I saw the accident.)
When talking about an action that was in progress when another action interrupted it, both actions occurred at the same time, but?
One action began earlier and was in progress (past continuous) when the other action occurred.
Can the past continuous be used to talk about two actions that were in progress simultaneously?
Yes. (While I was talking with my friend on the phone, they were singing outside.)
To describe the background in a story written in the past tense, can the past continuous be used?
(One hot afternoon in the park, some children were playing soccer, some were swimming in the river, and others are chatting under the trees. Suddenly, a red car rushed in.)
To make a very polite request with “wonder”, what form of the verb can you used?
Past continuous. (I was wondering if you could do me a favor.)
Verbs that are not normally used in continuous form, what tense can be used?
Past simple. (I understood that he had to do so. We can’t say: I was understanding that he had to do so.)
Does the past perfect tense show that something happened before another time in the past?
Yes [Her father had already made two cakes when her classmates arrived. (Her father made two cakes, after that her classmates arrived. The time when her classmates arrived was in the past, and the action "making two cakes" happened before this definite time.)]
To make it clear that one event happened before another in the past, use?
The past perfect tense. [When we arrived at the airport, he had already left. (He left first, then we arrived.)
In the past perfect tense, why does it does not matter which event is mentioned first?
The tense makes it clear which one happened first.
To form the past perfect in the affirmative, what is the basic rule?
Affirmative: Subject + Auxiliary (had) + Verb in Past Participle (I had walked.)
To form the past perfect in the negative, what is the basic rule?
Subject + Auxiliary (hadn’t) + Verb in Past Participle (I hadn’t walked.)
To form the past perfect in the interrogative, what is the basic rule?
Auxiliary (Had) + Subject + Verb in Past Participle (Had I walked?)
Past perfect is used to talk about an action that happened before another past action or before?
A stated time in the past. (She had made a big cake when her friends arrived.)
To talk about an action that finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past, use?
The past perfect. (He had passed the final exam. His parents were very happy.)
Is the past perfect the past equivalent of the present perfect?
Yes. (Compare: He had washed his hair. He looked so fresh. He has washed his hair. He looks so fresh.)
If either before or after is used in the sentence, is the past perfect necessary?
Often it is not necessary because the time relationship is already clear.
If either before or after is used in the sentence, and the past perfect is not needed, what can be used in its stead?
The past simple may be used. In other words, we can use the past perfect or past simple without any difference in meaning. (Compare: They had finished the project before their boss came back. They finished the project before their boss came back.)
What verb and what expression are used to express a desire which is different from or exactly the opposite to reality?
Wish and the expression if only.
Which is more emphatic, If only or I wish?
If only..
How is a wish about the future structured?
Wish/if only + would/could/past continuous (indicating a future event). (I wish / If only he would come to pick me up. I wish / If only he were coming to pick me up. I wish / If only he could come to pick me up.)
How is a wish about the present structured?
Wish/if only + past simple/could/past continuous. (I wish / If only I typed 100 words per minute. I wish /If only it weren’t snowing now. I wish / If only I could type 100 words per minute.)
How is a wish about the past or a regret structured?
Wish/if only + past perfect / could have/would have. (I wish / If only he had come. I wish / If only he could have come.)
What structure should you use when the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the following verb?
Subject1 + would rather + Subject2 + Verb in past (present/future) [I’d rather Susan went to the party with me.] Subject1 + Would rather + Subject2 + Had (not) + Verb in past participle (past) [I’d rather Joy hadn’t stolen the money.]
What structure should you use when the subject of would rather is the same as the subject of the following verb?
Subject + Would rather + Verb in base form (present / future) [I’d rather call Jim tonight.] Subject + Would rather + Verb in base form + Than + Verb in base form (present / future) [I’d rather eat an apple than (eat) an orange.] Subject + Would rather + (not) Have + Verb in past participle (past). [I’d rather have returned the book to Jessica.]
Past perfect continuous expresses an action that was in progress before another event or time in the past and is used to express?
The duration of the event. [The manager had been working for two hours before the light bulb burned out. (The action "working" lasted two hours before something else happened in the past.)]
What tense emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past?
The past perfect continuous
To form the past perfect continuous in the affirmative, what rule must we follow?
Subject + auxiliary (had) + been + verb in present participle (I had been walking.)
To form the past perfect continuous in the negative, what rule must we follow?
Subject + auxiliary (hadn’t) + been + verb in present participle (I hadn’t been walking.)
To form the past perfect continuous in the interrogative, what rule must we follow?
Auxiliary (had) + subject + been + verb in present participle. (Had I been walking?)
We use past perfect continuous to talk about the duration of an action which began and ended in the past before?
Another past action or a definite time in the past. (I had been working in the family business for 10 years before my grandmother died.)
To talk about an action in progress close in time to another activity or time in the past and the result was visible, what tense should we use?
Past perfect continuous. (Lily’s eyes were red because she had been crying.)
None
What is the past equivalent of the present perfect continuous?
The past perfect continuous. (Compare: They had been working for 10 hours, so they felt tired. They have been working for 10 hours, so they feel tired now.)
Does a past tense always refer to past time?
No [If I had some money now, I could buy it. ("had" is past simple, but it refers here to present time “now”) If you came next week, I would invite you to go hiking. ("came" is past simple, but it refers here to future time “next week”)]
For simple prediction we use what tense?
Simple future. (It will be warmer tomorrow.)
To show willingness in the future, we can use?
Simple future. (I’ll do it for you.)
Actions in progress in the future are expressed in?
Future continuous. (She’ll be teaching tomorrow when you arrive.)
Projecting ourselves into the future and looking back at a completed action, we can use?
Future perfect. (I’ll have arrived in Toronto by the end of next month.)
To express future plans and intentions, what structure should we use?
Going to future= be + going to + base form. (We’re going to spend Christmas with my parents.)
To express prediction based on present evidence, what structure should we use?
Going to future= be+ going to + base form. (Look at the dark clouds! It’s going to rain.)
“The plane takes off at 10 tonight” is a time-tabled event expressed in?
Simple present.
“We have a teacher meeting on Wednesday” is routine future event expressed in the?
Simple present.
Future arrangements or plans can be expressed in what present tense?
Present continuous. (He’s moving at the end of the month.)
Some future obligation can be expressed through?
Be + to infinitive. (He’s to finish his report first.)
Events that will take place immediately or very soon can be expressed by?
To be about to + verb in base form. (The plane is about to take off.)
Future scheduled events can be expressed by?
To be due to + verb in base form. (The train is due to leave at 3 p.m.)
To show some future supposition or deduction, the following structure can be used?
To be sure/bound/certain to + verb in base form. (He’s bound to get what he wants.)
Future events to happen momentarily can be expressed by?
To be on the point of + verb in present participle. (She’s on the point of leaving.)
To show that an action will happen at a particular time in the future use?
Future simple. [The teacher will go to the museum with us next Saturday. (The action "going to the museum" didn't happen in the past, isn't happening now. It will happen next Saturday, which is a particular time in the future.)]
The future simple is composed of what two parts?
Auxiliary Verb (will/shall) + base form, e.g. I’ll go to the concert. If the subject is I or we, “shall” can also be used, e.g. I shall go to the concert. This expression is more common in British English than American English.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative future simple statement when the subject is in the third person singular?
He will not walk.
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the interrogative future simple statement when the subject is in the third person plural?
Will they walk?
Using ‘walk’ as the main verb, how do you form the negative future simple statement when the subject is in the first person plural?
We will walk.
Can we use the future simple with “will” to predict future events?
Yes. (We’ll be late for class. Hurry up!)
To express a future decision made generally at the moment of speaking (i.e. not previously planned) what tense can be used?
Future simple. (I’ll pay for your coffee.)
Can future simple be used for promises, threats, warnings, requests, hopes, offers, etc.?
Yes. [I’ll carry the bags for you. (offer) You'll get sick. Put your coat on (warning) I'll write to you when I get there (promise)
Future simple can not be used for actions, events, or situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we cannot control?
False, it can be used. (The hurricane will come tomorrow.)
To express a prediction (something we think will be true or will occur in the future), can we use either will or be going to?
Yes. (Compare: Did you listen to the weather report? Will it snow tomorrow? Did you listen to the weather report? Is it going to snow tomorrow?)
To express a prediction when there is evidence that something will happen in the near future, do we use will or be going to?
Only going to. (Look at the clouds! It’s going to rain.)
To express a prior plan which has already been made before the time of speaking, do we use only be going to?
Yes. (Tom bought some paints because he’s going to paint his house.)
To express willingness, do we use only will?
Yes. (I’ll help you with your math)
We normally use be going to to talk about something we intend to do and will?
To give details or make comments. (I ’m going to paint my bedroom. - That’ll be great!)
We normally use the present continuous rather than be going to with verbs which express movement, especially the verbs?
Go and come. [I’m going to the supermarket for some food. (Careful! This is the present continuous tense i.e. be + verb in present participle . It is NOT ‘going to future’ i.e. be + going to+ base form)]
What tense gives the idea that an action will be in progress during a period of time in the future?
Future Continuous. (He will be studying with his friends when his mother arrives. Suppose his mother arrives at 8:00 tomorrow morning. The action "studying" will begin before 8, and continue until sometime after 8.)
None
The future continuous tense is composed of what three parts?
Auxiliary verb (will)+ be + verb in present participle.
To form the affirmative future continuous, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary(will) + be + verb in present participle. (I will be walking.)
To form the negative future continuous, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary (won’t) + be + verb in present participle. (I won’t be walking.)
To form the interrogative future continuous, follow the rule?
Auxiliary (Will) + subject + be + verb in present participle. (Will I be walking?)
The continuous form of be going to is?
Be going to be + verb in present participle (This time next Monday, I’m going to be studying at school.)
We use the future continuous to talk about an action which?
Will be in progress at a stated time in future. (She’ll be teaching at 11 tomorrow.)
To talk about an action which will definitely happen in the future as the result of a routine or arrangement, use?
The future continuous. (I’ll be waiting for you so that we can go shopping together.)
Can the future continuous be used when we ask politely about someone’s plans for the near future?
Yes. (Will you be coming to my birthday party?)
Can the future continuous be used to predict or guess about someone’s actions or feelings?
Yes. (I think you’ll be feeling exhausted after swimming for 2 hours.)
What tense expresses an action that will happen before another action or time in the future?
The future perfect. (Anna will have left her school when you arrive at the airport. Suppose you arrive at 9:00 tonight. The action "leaving" will happen before 9.)
None
The future perfect expresses an activity that will be?
Completed before another time or event in the future.
What tense do we use to project ourselves forward into the future and looking back at an action that will be completed some time later than now?
The future perfect. (He’ll have made two model planes by the time you come.)
To form the affirmative future perfect, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary (will) + have + verb in past participle (I will have walked.
To form the negative future perfect, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary (won’t) + have + verb + in past participle (I won’t have walked.)
To form the interrogative future perfect, follow the rule?
Auxiliary(Will) + subject + have + verb in Past Participle. (Will I have walked?)
The future perfect is often used with a time expression, such as?
By a point in future time, e.g. “by tomorrow”, “by next week”, etc. [By the time introduces a time clause and the present simple is used in the clause. (I’ll have finished it by tomorrow. She’ll have received the books by the time she goes to China.)]
Is the future perfect also used with until/till in negative statements?
Yes. (I won’t have finished it until/till tonight.)
What tense expresses an action that will be in progress for a period of time before something else happens in the future?
Future Perfect Continuous [We will have been eating for half an hour by the time you come. (Suppose you come at 7:00 tonight. We will begin eating at 6:30. The action "eating" will last 30 minutes before you arrive.)]
Does the future perfect continuous emphasize the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future?
Yes. (He’ll have been waiting for 5 hours by the time his boss comes back.)
To form the affirmative future perfect continuous, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary (will)+ have + been + Verb in Present Participle. (I will have been walking.)
To form the negative future perfect continuous, follow the rule?
Subject + auxiliary (won’t) have + been + verb in present participle. (I won’t have been walking.)
To form the interrogative future perfect continuous, follow the rule?
Auxiliary (will) + subject + have + been + verb in present participle. (Will I have been walking?)
Can the future perfect continuous and the future perfect have the same meaning?
Sometimes. (Compare: By the end of this year, Joanna will have been teaching for 10 years. By the end of this year, Joanna will have taught for 10 years.)
Does a future tense always refer to future time?
Not always. [Leave it to me