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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is temperature regulation important?
Enzymatic reactions depend on optimal temperature ranges.
What is a poikilotherm?
An animal that passively regulates body temperature by making behavioral adjustments.
What is a hemoetherm?
An animal that actively regulates body temperature within a certain range by physiological mechanisms.
What enzymatic reaction generates heat?
Combustion of fuels.
What causes hyperthermia and fever?
Prolonged exposure to hot environments.
What is a pyrogen and what is its effect?
A substance that causes elevation in body temperature - elevation in the hypothalamic "set point."
What is the main function of heat shock proteins?
Protect proteins and enzymes of intracellular reactions in hyperthermic states.
What causes hypothermia?
Prolonged exposure to cold water or air.
What are the 4 modalities of heat transfer?
1) Radiation
2) Conduction
3) Convection
4) Evaporation
What is the general equation to measure body temperature?
Heat gain - heat loss.
How does one maintain a constant internal body temperature?
Δheat = 0; increased heat gain must result in increased heat loss, increased heat loss must result in increased heat gain.
What are the 4 components of the physiological control system for temperature regulation?
1) Peripheral sensors
2) Central sensors
3) Central controller (hypothalamic thermostat)
4) Physiological effectors (skin, sweat glands, etc.)
How do peripheral sensors work?
Thermoreceptors that sense warm and cold changes in the skin and respond to changes in external temperature.
How do central sensors work?
Many warm and a few cold thermoreceptors in the anterior hypothalamus monitor the internal core body temperature.
How do cold and warm receptors work?
Cold receptors discharge signals when the environment is cold, warm receptors discharge signals when the environment is hot.
What are the 3 types of muscle contractions?
1) isometric contraction
2) isotonic contraction
3) fatiguing contraction
What is a fatiguing contraction?
The inability to maintain a certain force or power output.
What is the significance of Fig 4?
I don't know.
What is external work dependent on?
Muscle shortening.
What is muscle shortening dependent on?
Cross-bridge cycling.
What is cross-bridge cycling dependent on?
ATP hydrolysis.
What is the result of extremely low ATP levels?
Muscle rigor.
How is ATP generated?
Aerobic and anaerobic reactions.
In steady-state, non-fatiguing exercise, what is external work dependent on?
Adequate oxygen supply, local glycogen stores in the muscle, blood glucose from liver gluconeogenesis.
In transient, fatiguing exercise, what happens to external work?
It falls off due to negative loss of oxygen, glycogen, blood glucose, as well as a build up of K+ and H+.
What happens to effective circulating volume (ECV) in prolonged exercise?
It falls due to loss of fluid entering the interstitium, evaporating via perspiration, and blood volume redistributing from muscle to skin.
What senses a drop in ECV and how will they respond to low blood pressure?
Low-pressure baroreceptors, which limit the fall in ECV by increasing vascular resistance in the gut, something about vasodilatory drive???
What is cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET)?
A global assessment of each integrated physiological system (pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, neuropsychological, and skeletal muscle).
What is CPET useful for?
Diagnosing exercise intolerance.
What ist eh difference between resting and active pulmonary function testing?
I don't know.
Describe the oxygen debt produced in strenuous exercise vs. endurance exercise.
Figure 6. What else?