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136 Cards in this Set

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What is the orientation of phosphlipids in the cell membrane
In bilayer structure with heads on the outside.
What is the diameter of the pores?
8 angstroms.
What is the structure of the pores?
Hollow tubes of transport proteins - aquaporins.
What are the integral protein components of the cell membrane?
Nonpolar amino acids.
What are the peripherial protein components of the cell membrane?
Proteins bound to surface of cell membrane.
What is the selective permeability to non-polar molecules?
Pores controls what and how much something enters a cell.
What is the selective permeability to molecules smaller than 8 angstrom?
They can pass through easily.
What is the selective permeability to molecules larger than 8 angstrom?
They cannot pass through, enter by pushing through the phospholipids.
What is the selective permeability of charged particles over 8 angstrom?
They are too large to pass through pores and charged particles cannot pass past the phospholipids.
Define Endocytosis
Process by which liquids or
small solid particles are
taken into a cell in the form of small vesicles that are produced through the invagination of the cell membrane.
What is the mechanism of pinocytosis?
type of endocytosis where the cell ingests extracelluar fluid and its solutes
macromolecules
What is an example of particle types or structures ingested during pinocytosis?
protein molecules dissolved in extracellular fluid
What is receptor mediated Endocytosis?
enables cell to take in specific substances
What is Exocytosis?
active transport process to secrete macromolecules from cells
What purpose(s) is Exocytosis employed?
secretion of insulin, release of neurons, proteins and carbohydrates
What is the structure of Rough E.R (Endoplasmic Reticulum)?
Stacks of membranes called cisternae, connected by connectives with bound ribosomes.
What are the functions of Rough E.R (Endoplasmic Reticulum)?
protein and membrane synthesis
What is the differences in the products of free and bound ribosomes?
free ribosomes make proteins that the cell itself will use. Bound ribosomes make proteins for other cells
What are the Rough E.R. transport vesicles?
vesicles which transport proteins to the golgi complex
What do Rough E.R transport vesicles contain?
protein
What is the structure of Smooth E.R.?
Membrane tubes, continuous tubes that loop and twist.
What are the functions of Smooth E.R.?
lipid, glycogen synthesis, detoxification
What is the structure of the Gogli complex?
polarized stacks of membranes called cisternae, usually stacks of 4 or 8
What are the functions of the Gogli complex?
packaging of proteins and lipids, lysosomes and cellulose synthesis
What is the forming cis, receiving faces?
the top cisternae of the gogli complex
What is the forming trans, shipping faces?
the bottom cisternae of the gogli complex
Define dictyosome.
the gogli complex in plants
What is the structure of the lysosome?
a vacuole containing hydrolytic or digestive enzymes - found only in animals
What are the functions of lysosomes?
digestion of macromolecules
How do cells protect from lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes?
the cytosol has a neutral pH
What is intercellular digestion of cells by phagocytosis?
when food is broken down inside the cell
What is the intercellular explusion of cells by phagocytosis?
exocytosis
What are digestive vacoules?
vacuoles which contain lysosomes
What are residual vacoules?
vacuoles which contain undigested material
What is the process of exocytosis?
secretion of macromolecules by fusing visicles to the cell membrane
What is the structure of peroxisomes?
membrane bound organelles full of enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide
What is the function of peroxisomes?
detoxification by removing hydrogen atoms
What is the structure of glycoxysomes?
membrane bound organelles full of enzymes found in plants
What is the function of glyoxysomes?
breakdown and convert fatty acids to sugars
Describe food vacuoles.
vacoules created by phagocytosis
Describe contractile vacuoles.
Vacoules which moves excess water out of cells.
Describe central vacuoles.
vacuoles which store toxins and pigments within plants
What are the components of the endomembrane system?
endoplasmic reticulum, gogli complex, vesicles, lysosomes, microbodies, nuclear membrane
What is the structure of mitochondria?
double membrane organelle, inner membrane is folded into cristae
What is the function of mitochondria?
atp synthesis
Where is mitochondria location, numbers and origin?
found in cells which need energy, directly proportional to energy a cell needs, originated from bacteria
What is the structure and function of leucoplasts?
What is the structure and function of chromoplasts?
What is the structure and origin of chloroplasts?
What is the origin of chlorplasts?
What is the structure and function of microtubals?
What is the structure and function of microfiliments?
What is the structure and function of centrioles?
What is the structure and function of cilia?
What is the structure and functions of flagella?
What is the structure and functions of basil bodies?
What is the composition of animal cell cellular coats and function?
What is the compostion of plant cell cellular coats and function?
Define eukaryotic cell.
Which kingdom of organisms consist entirely of eukaryotic cellular organisms?
Define prokaryotic cell.
Which kingdom of organisms comprise these types?
What cells are the members of prokaryotic kingdom?
One word answer.
What is the structure of a prokaryotic cell?
What is the structure of helical viruses?
What is the structure of polyhedral viruses?
What is the structure of complex viruses?
Question
Answer
Hint
What is the orientation of phosphlipids in the cell membrane
In bilayer structure with heads on the outside.
What is the diameter of the pores?
8 angstroms
What is the structure of the pores?
transport proteins - aquaporins
What are the integral protein components of the cell membrane?
nonpolar amino acids
What are the peripherial protein components of the cell membrane?
bound to surface of cell membrane
What is the selective permeability to non-polar molecules?
controls what an how much something enters a cell
What is the selective permeability to molecules smaller than 8 angstrom?
can pass through easily
What is the selective permeability to molecules larger than 8 angstrom?
cannot pass through, taken in by endocytosis
What is the selective permeability of charged particles over 8 angstrom?
charged particles cannot pass through
Define Endocytosis
process by which liquids or small solid particles are taken into a cell in the form of small vesicles that are produced through the invagination of the cell membrane
What is the mechanism of pinocytosis?
type of endocytosis where the cell ingests extracelluar fluid and its solutes
macromolecules
What is an example of particle types or structures ingested during pinocytosis?
protein molecules dissolved in extracellular fluid
What is receptor mediated Endocytosis?
enables cell to take in specific substances
What is receptor mediated Phagocytosis?
What is Exocytosis?
active transport process to secrete macromolecules from cells
What purpose(s) is Exocytosis employed?
secretion of insulin, release of neurons, proteins and carbohydrates
What is the structure of Rough E.R (Endoplasmic Reticulum)?
stacks of membranes called cisternae connected by connectives with bound ribosomes
What are the functions of Rough E.R (Endoplasmic Reticulum)?
protein and membrane synthesis
What is the differences in the products of free and bound ribosomes?
free ribosomes make proteins that the cell itself will use. Bound ribosomes make proteins for other cells
What are the Rough E.R. transport vesicles?
vesicles which transport proteins to the golgi complex
What do Rough E.R transport vesicles contain?
protein
What is the structure of Smooth E.R.?
membrane tubes, continuous tube that loops and twists
What are the functions of Smooth E.R.?
lipid, glycogen synthesis, detoxification
What is the structure of the Gogli complex?
polarized stacks of membranes called cisternae, usually stacks of 4 or 8
What are the functions of the Gogli complex?
packaging of proteins and lipids, lysosomes and cellulose synthesis
What is the forming cis, receiving faces?
the top cisternae of the gogli complex
What is the forming trans, shipping faces?
the bottom cisternae of the gogli complex
Define dictyosome.
the gogli complex in plants
What is the structure of the lysosome?
a vacuole containing hydrolytic or digestive enzymes - found only in animals
What are the functions of lysosomes?
digestion of macromolecules
How do cells protect from lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes?
the cytosol has a neutral pH
What is intercellular digestion of cells by phagocytosis?
when food is broken down inside the cell
What is the intercellular explusion of cells by phagocytosis?
exocytosis
What are digestive vacoules?
vacuoles which contain lysosomes
What are residual vacoules?
vacuoles which contain undigested material
What is the process of exocytosis?
secretion of macromolecules by fusing visicles to the cell membrane
What is the structure of peroxisomes?
membrane bound organelles full of enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide
What is the function of peroxisomes?
detoxification by removing hydrogen atoms
What is the structure of glycoxysomes?
membrane bound organelles full of enzymes found in plants
What is the function of glyoxysomes?
breakdown and convert fatty acids to sugars
Describe food vacuoles.
vacoules created by phagocytosis
Describe contractile vacuoles.
vacoules which moves excess water out of cells
Describe central vacuoles.
vacuoles which store toxins and pigments within plants
What are the components of the endomembrane system?
endoplasmic reticulum, gogli complex, vesicles, lysosomes, microbodies, nuclear membrane
What is the structure of mitochondria?
double membrane organelle, inner membrane is folded into cristae
What is the function of mitochondria?
atp synthesis
Where is mitochondria location, numbers and origin?
found in cells which need energy, directly proportional to energy a cell needs, originated from bacteria
What is the structure and function of leucoplasts?
What is the structure and function of chromoplasts?
What is the structure and origin of chloroplasts?
What is the origin of chlorplasts?
What is the structure and function of microtubals?
What is the structure and function of microfiliments?
What is the structure and function of centrioles?
What is the structure and function of cilia?
What is the structure and functions of flagella?
What is the structure and functions of basil bodies?
What is the composition of animal cell cellular coats and function?
What is the compostion of plant cell cellular coats and function?
Define eukaryotic cell.
Which kingdom of organisms consist entirely of eukaryotic cellular organisms?
Define prokaryotic cell.
Which kingdom of organisms comprise these types?
What cells are the members of prokaryotic kingdom?
One word answer.
What is the structure of a prokaryotic cell?
What is the structure of helical viruses?
What is the structure of polyhedral viruses?
What is the structure of complex viruses?