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155 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Difference among people in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status.
The way of life common to a group of people; includes knowledge deemed important, shared meanings, norms, values, attitudes, ideals, and view of the world.
Cultural pluralism
The preservation of cultural differences among groups of people within one society. This view is in contrast to the melting-pot theory that says that ethnic cultures should melt into one.
Ethnic group
Individuals within a larger culture who share a racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes and who consider themselves members of a distinct group or subculture.
Cultural identity
An overall sense of oneself, derived from the extent of one's participation in various subcultures within the national macroculture.
Bilingual education
Using two languages as a medium of instruction. Designed to help students maintain their ethnic identity & become proficient in both English and the language of the home, to encourage assimilation into the mainstream culture and integrate the home language and culture with a new one.
Limmited English Proficient (LEP)
A designation for students with limited ability to understand, read, or speak English and who have a first language other than English.
A set of beliefs based on the importance of seeing the world from different cultural frames of referenhce and valuing the diversity of cultures in the global community.
Why is multiculturalism important in schools?
To prepare students to live in a culturally pluralistic world.
A shared feeling of common identity of common identity that derives, in part, from a common ancestry, common values, and common experiences.
A concept of human variation used to distinguish people on the basis of biological traits and characteristics.
Groups of people who share certain characteristics and are smaller in number than the majority of a population.
The process of attributing behavioral characteristics to all members of a group; formulated on the basis of limited experiences with and information about the group, coupled with an unwillingness to examine prejudices.
Individual racism
The prejudicial belief that one's ethnic or racial group is superior to others.
Institutional racism
Institutional policies and practices, intentional or not, that result in racial inequities.
What should a teacher do to ensure that he/she is practicing Equal Educational Opportunity?
Evaluate the appropriateness of the curricular and instructional experiences they provide to each student.
Afrocentric schools
1)Schools that focus on African Amercian history and cultures for African Amercian pupils.
Indian Education Act of 1972 and 1974 Amendments
A federal law and subsequent amendment designed to provide direct educational assistance to Native American tribes and nations.
Able to function effectively in two or more linguistic and cultural groups.
Bilingual Education Act
Required that language minority students be taught in both their native language and English.
Equal Educational Opportunity Act
Stated in part that a school district must "take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs."
Multicultural education
Education that provides equal educational opportunities to al students--regardless of socioeconomic status; gender; or ethnic, racial, or cultural backgrounds--and is dedicated to reducing prejudice and celebrating the rich diversity of U.S. life
Five dimensions of multicultural education.
1)Content integration
2)Knowledge construction
3)Prejudice reduction
4)An equity pedagogy
5)An empowering school culture.
Multicultural curriculum
A school curriculum that addresses the needs and backgrounds of all students regardless of their cultural identity and includes the cultural perspectives, or "voices", of people who have previously been silent or marginalized.
Sex role stereotyping
Beliefs that subtly encourage males and females to confirm to certain behavioral norms regardless of abilities and interests.
Sex role socialization
Socially expected behavior patterns conveyed to individuals on the basis of gender.
Women's Educational Educational Equity Act (WEEA)
A 1974 federal law that guarantees equal educational opportunities for females.
Gender bias
Subtle bias or discrimination on the basis of gender; reduces the likelihood that the target of the bias will develop tot he full extent of this or her capabilities.
What has caused "resegreation" in our schools?
The Supreme Court ruling that removed judicial supervision of school district efforts to desegregate.
What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
1)Sensormotor Intelligence
3)Concrete operations
4)Formal operations
Sensorimotor Intelligence
Behavior is primarily sensory & motor. Does not "think" conceptually. Cognitive development can be observed.
Preoperational thought
Language development. Rapid conceptual development. Use of symbols. Fantasy & imaginative play.
Concrete Operations
Logical thought to solve concrete problems. Basic concepts of objects, number, time, space, and causality. Able to draw conclusions through the use of concreate objects to manipulate.
Formal Operations
Cognitive abilities reach their highest level of development. Predictions can be made. Think about thinking. Appreciate the use of communication. Sarcasm, puns, argumentation, & use of slang. Think abstractly.
What are Kohlberg's three levels of moral reasoning?
3)Postconventional, Autonomous, or Principal
Child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong, but interprests these in terms of consequences of action (punishment, reward, exchanges of favors).
Maintaing the expectations of the individual's family, group, or nation is perceived as valuable, regardless of consequences.
Postconventional, Autonomous, or Principal
Effort to define moral principals that have validity and application apart from the authority of groups.
Psychosocial crisis
A life crisis at one of eight different stages of growth and development. Must resolve each crisis before advancing to the next stage.
Character education
An approach to education that emphasizes the teaching of values, moral reasoning, and the development of "good" character.
Hierarchy of needs
A set of seven needs, from the basic needs for survival and safety to the need for self-actualization, that motivate human behavior as indentified by Abraham Maslow.
Wahat is wrong with intelligence tests?
Culturally bias. Tests how informed they are about features in a specific class or culture than how intelligent they are in general.
Larry P. v. Riles
Court decision that IQ tests were discriminatory and culturally bias.
What are the multiple intelligences?
8)Existential intelligence
Learning styles
Cognitive, affective, & physiological behaviors through which an individual learns most effectively; determined by a combination of hereditary and environmental influences.
Exceptional learners
Students whose growth & development deviate from the norm to the extent that their educational needs can be bet more effectively through a modification of regular school programs.
What are the three critical concepts to promote growth, talents, and productivity of exceptional students?
1)Special education
Special education
A teaching spsecialty for meeting the special educational needs of exceptional laarners.
Education for all Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142)
A 1975 federal act that guarantees a free & appropriate education to all handicapped children. Mainstreaming.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
A 1990 federal act providing a free, appropriate education to disabled youth between three and twenty-one years of age. IDEA superseded the earlier Education for all Handicapped Children Act.
Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 97)
Amendments to IDEA that emphasizes educational outcomes for students with disabilities and provide greater access through changes in eligibility requirements, IEP guidelines, public & private placements, student discipline guidelines, & procedural safeguards.
Least restrictive environment
An educational program that meets a disabled student's special needs in a manner that is identical, insolar as possible, to that provided to students in general education classrooms.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A plan for meeting an exceptional learner's educational needs, specifying goals, objectives, services, & procedures for evaluating progress.
The policy & process of integrating disabled or otherwise exceptional learners into regular classrooms with nonexceptional students.
The practice of integrating all students with disabilities into general education classes.
Full inclusion
The policy & process of including exceptional learners in general education classrooms.
What are the three areas that must be paid attention to have a truly inclusive classroom?
1)Collaboarative consultation
2)Partnerships with parents
3)Assistive technology for special learners.
What five approaches can be used to meet the learning means of gifted students?
2)Self-directed or independent study
3)Individual education programs
4)Special or magnet schools
5)Weekend & summber programs
Classroom climate
The atmosphere or quality of life in a classroom, determined by how individuals interact with one another.
Caring classroom
A classroom in which the teacher communicates clearly an attitude of caring about students' learning and their overall well-being.
Classroom organization
How teachers & students in a school are grouped for instruction & how time is allocated in classrooms.
Between-class ability grouping
The practice of grouping students at the middle & high school levels for instruction on the basis of ability or achievement, often called tracking.
Within-class ability grouping
The practice of creating small, homogeneous groups of students within a single classroom for the purpose of instruction, usually in reading or mathematics, at the elementary level.
Cooperative learning
An approach to education in which students work in small groups, or teams, sharing the work and helping one another complete assignments.
Authentic learning tasks
Learning activities that enable students to see the connections between classroom learning & the world beyond the classroom.
Allocated time
The amount of time teachers allocate for instruction in various areas of the curriculum.
Time on task
The amount of time students are actively & directly engaged in learning tasks.
Academic learning time
The amount of time students spend working on academic tasks with a high level of success (80% of higher).
Opportunity to learn (OTL)
The time during which a teacher provides students with challenging content & appropriate instructional strategies to learn that content.
Block scheduling
A high school scheduling arrangement that provides longer blocks of time each class period, with fewer periods each day.
Classroom management
How teachers structure their learning environments to prevent, or minimize, behavior problems.
Democratic classrooms
A classroom in which the teacher's leadership style encourages students to take more power & responsibility for their learning.
Choice theory
An approach to classroom management, developed by psychiatrist based on a belief that students will usually make good choices if they experience success in the classroom & know that teachers care about them.
Assertive discipline
An approach to classroom discipline requiring that teachers establish firm, clear guidelines for student behavior & follow through w/ consequences for misbehavior.
Direct instruction
A systematic instructional method focusing on the transmission of knowledge & skills from the teacher to the students.
Mastery learning
An approach to instruction based on the assumptions that 1) virtually all students can learn material if given enough time & taught appropriately & 2) learning is enhanced if students can progress in small, sequenced steps.
The process of "thinking out loud" that teachers use to make students aware of the reasoning involved in learning new material.
Constructivist teaching
A method of teaching based on students' prior knowledge of the topic & the processes they use to construct meaning.
Used in constructive teaching. An approach to teaching based on the student's current level of understanding & ability; the teacher varies the amount of help given to students based on their moment-to-moment understanding of the material being learned.
Information processing
A branch of cognitive science concerned with how individuals use long-and-short-term memory to acquire information & solve problems.
Inquiry learning
An approach to teaching that gives students opportunities to explore, or inquire into, subjects so that they develoop their own answers to problem situations.
Discovery learning
An approach to teaching that gives students opportunities to inquire into subjects so that they "discover" knowledge for themselves.
Peer-mediated instruction
Approaches to teaching, such as cooperative learning & group investigation, that utilize the social relationships among students to promote their learning.
Group investigation
An approach to teaching in which the teacher facilitates learning by creating an environment that allows students to determine what they will study & how.
The school experiences, both planned & unplanned, that enhance (& sometimes impede) the education & growth of students.
Explicit curriculum
The behaviors, attitudes, & knowledge that a school intends to teach students.
Hidden curriculum
The behaviors, attitudes, & knowledge that school culture unintentionally teaches a student.
Null curriculum
The intellectual processes & subject content that schools do not teach.
Tyler rationale
A four-step model for curriculum development in which teachers identify purposes, select learning experiences, organize experiences, & evaluate.
Subject-centered curriculum
A curriculum that emphasizes learning an academic discipline. Used in high schools.
Student-centered curriculum
Curricula that are organized around students' needs & interests. Used in elementary schools.
Integrated curriculum
A school curriculum that draws from two or more subject areas & focuses on a theme or concept rather than on a single subject.
Who plans the curriculum?
Textbook publishers, federal government, state department of education, the school's planning team, & teachers.
What influences curricular decisions?
Social issues & changing values & textbook publishing.
Statements that reflect what students should know & be able to do within a particular discipline or at a particular grade level.
Standards-based education (SBE)
Basing curricula, teaching, & assessment of student learning on rigorous academic standards.
Content standards
The content--or knowledge & skills--students should acquire in various academic disciplines.
Statements of what students should understand & be able to do at specific grade leveles or developmental stages.
Performance standards
Academic standards that reflect levels of proficiency.
Statements that reflect what students should know & be able to do within a particular discipline or at a particular grade level.
Standards-based education (SBE)
Basing curricula, teaching, & assessment of student learning on rigorous academic standards.
Content standards
The content--or knowledge & skills--students should acquire in various academic disciplines.
Statements of what students should understand & be able to do at specific grade leveles or developmental stages.
Performance standards
Academic standards that reflect levels of proficiency.
The practice of holding teachers responsible for adhering to high professional & moral standards & creating effective learning environments for all students.
High-stakes tests
Achievement tests that have "high stakes" consequences for students, teachers,& administrators--for example, a test that determines if a student is eligible to graduate or whether educators receive merit pay increases.
The process of gathering information related to how much students have learned.
Work habits
Dispositions important for effective thinking & learning--for example, reading with curiousity & willingness to work hard.
The process of measuring one's growth in regard to the knowledge, skills, & attitudes possessed by professional teachers.
The gathering of data that indicate how much students have learned.
Making judgments about, or assigning a value to, measurements of students' learning.
Formative evaluation
An assessment, or diagnosis, of students' learning for the purpose of planning instruction.
Summative evaluation
An assessment of student learning made for the purpose of assigning grades at the end of a unit, semester, or year & deciding whether students are ready to proceed to the next phase of their education.
Alternative assessments
Approaches that assess students' ability to complete "real-life" tasks rather than merely regurgitate facts.
Authentic assessment
An approach to assessment students' learning that requires them to solve problems or work on tasks that approximate as much as possible those they will encounter beyond the classroom (ie. projects).
Portfolio assessment
The process of determining how much students have learned by examining collections of work that document their learning over time.
Performance-based assessment
The process of determining students' ability to apply knowledge, skills, and work habits to the performance of specific learning tasks; determining what students can do as well as what they know.
Alternate assessments
An alternative way of measuring the performance of students who are unable to participate in "traditional" approaches to assessments. (ie. students w/ developmental disabilities).
Project-based learning (PBL)
An approach to learning in which students work in teams on complex, "real-world" projects that allow them to develop & apply skills & knowledge.
The degree to which assessments measure what they are supposed to measure.
The degree to which an assessment provides results that are consistent over time.
Scoring rubrics
Rating scales that consist of preestablished criteria for evaluating student performance on learning tasks. (Examples of excellent work is provided as a guideline).
Holistic rubric
A rate scale, or scoring guide, for evaluating a student's overall product or performance. (ie 1-5)
Analytic rubric
A rating scale, or scoring guide, for evaluating part of a student's product or performance. (ie. grammer, organization)
Education that is delivered via the internet, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, or CD-ROM.
Virtual schools
Educational institutions that offer K-12 courses through the internet or by means of web-based methods; an online learning space where teachers and students interact.
Educational technology
Computers, software, multimedia systems, and advanced telecommunications systems used to enhance the teaching-learning process.
Distant learning networks
Two-way, interactive telecommunications systems used to deliver instruction to students at various locations.
Channel One
A controversial 12 min. news broadcast, including 2 min. of commercials, aired daily in more than 12,000 public and private schools; schools receive Channel One programs, equipment, and service free of charge on agreeing to show the programs to students.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
The use of computers to proved individualized drill-and-practice exercises or tutorials to students.
Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
The use of computers to evaluate and diagnose students' learning needs and record students' progress for teachers to monitor. (ie. Edusoft)
Computer-enhanced instruction (CEI)
The use of computers to provide students with inquiry-oriented learning experiences such as simulations and problem-solving activities.
Microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL)
The use of computers to gather and then analyze data that students have collected in a school laboratory or in the field.
An interactive instructional system consisting of a computer, CD-ROM drive, videodisc player, video monitor, and speakers. Hypermedia systems allow students to control and present sound, video images,text, and graphics in an almost limitless array of possibilities.
Computer-based simulations
Computer programs that present the user with multifaceted problem situations similar to those they will encounter in real life.
Home-school communication systems
Computer-based systems that allow schools to disseminate information to parents and, in turn, enable parents to communicate directly with school personnel.
Digital divide
Inequities in access to computer technology that are related to minority-group status, family income, and gender.
Computer-based simulations
Computer programs that present the user with multifaceted problem situations similar to those they will encounter in real life.
Home-school communication systems
Computer-based systems that allow schools to disseminate information to parents and, in turn, enable parents to communicate directly with school personnel.
Digital divide
Inequities in access to computer technology that are related to minority-group status, family income, and gender.
The process of engaging in serious, reflective thought about improving one's professional practice while one is engaged in that practice.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
A professional organization for educators interested in school improvement at all levels
Coalition of Essential Schools (CES)
A national network of public and private high schools that hve restructured according to nine Common Principles.
National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER)
A national network of colleges and universities that collaborate with school districts and partner schools to reform education according to nineteen postulates.
Accelerated schools
A national network of schools that provide enriched, rigorous curricula to "speed up" the learning of students at risk.
Teaching certificate
A license to teach issued by state or, in a few cases, a large city.
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
An agency that accredits, on a voluntary basis, almost half of the nation's teacher education programs.
The practice in some states of requiring experienced teachers to undergo periodic testing to maintain their teaching certificates.
Interstate Certification Agreement Contract
A reciprocity agreement among approximately thirty states whereby a teaching certificate obtained in one state will be honored in another.
Alternative certification
A provision allowing people who have completed college but not a teacher education program to become certified teachers.
Qualitative evaluation
The appraisal of teacher performance through the use of written, open-ended descriptions of classroom events in terms of their qualities.
Quantitative evaluation
The appraisal of teachers performance by recording classroom events in terms of their number of frequency--for example, teacher verbal behaviors such as questioning, praising, or crtiquing.
Clinical supervision
A four-step model supervisors follow in making teacher performance evaluations. 1)Preconference 2)Observes classroom 3)Analyzes & interprets observation data 4)Post conference.
What resources can teachers use to involve parents and members of the community?
Training programs, hotlines, referral networks, and partnership programs.
What are four approaches to teacher collaboration?
1) Peer coaching 2)Staff development, team teaching, and co-teaching.