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95 Cards in this Set

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Student variability
Differences among students in regard to their developmental needs, interests, abilities.
Student diversity
Differences among students in regard to gender, race, ethnicity, culture, and socioeconomic status.
"Moonlight"
Teachers holding a second job.
Tenure
Job security granted to teachers after satisfactory performance for a specified period, usually 2-5 years.
Student-mobility rates
The proportion of students within a school or district who move during an academic year.
What are the six realities of teaching?
1.Unpredictability of Outcomes.
2.Difficulty of Assessing Students' Learning.
3.Need for Teacher-Student Partnership.
4.Impact of Teachers' Attitudes.
5.Drama and Immedicacy of Teaching.
6.Uniqueness of the Teaching Experience.
Interactive teaching
Teaching characterized by face-to-face interactions between teachers and students in contrast to preactive teaching.
Preactive teaching
The stage of teaching when a teacher prepares to teach or reflects on previous teaching exoperiences in contrast with interactive teaching.
During a discussion what two things must you do?
1.Respond appropriately and be aware of other students reactions and behavior.
2.Ensure equal participation amongst all the students.
Teachers' thought processes
Thoughts related to planning, theories and beliefs, and interactive thoughts and decisions.
What are the challenges of teaching?
1.Classroom management.
2.Social problems that impact students.
3.Need for family and community support.
4.Long working hours and job stress.
5.Need for professional empowerment.
Teacher accountability
Society's expectations that teachers will adhere to high professional and moral standards and create effective learning environments for all students.
Modes of teaching.
Different aspects of teaching function-for example, teaching as a way of being, as a creative endeavor, as a live performance, and so on.
What essential knowledge do you need to teach?
1.Knowledge of self.
2.Knowledge of students.
3.Knowledge of subject.
4.Knowledge of educational theory and research.
Padagogical content knowledge
The knowledge accomplished teachers possess regarding how to present subject matter to students through the use of analogies, metaphors, experiments, demostrations, illustrations, and other instructional strategies.
Knowledge base
The body of knowledge that represents what teachers need to know and be able to do.
Teachers' craft knowledge
The knowledge teachers develop about teaching that derives from their experiences in the classroom, particularly the actions they have taken to solve specific problems of practice.
What are the five ways of viewing the teacher knowledge base?
1.Personal development view.
2.Research-based competencies.
3.State standards.
4.Job-analysis approach.
5.Professional views.
How must teachers appear? (4)
1.In charge of their lives.
2.Radiate power.
3.Tranquility.
4.Grace in their actions.
Personal development view
The belief that teachers become more effective by increasing their self-knowledge and developing themselves as persons.
Research-based competencies
Specific behaviors that educational research has identified as characteristic of effective teachers.
Performance-based teacher education
An approach to teacher education emphasizing performances (what teachers should be able to do, think, and feel) rather that the courses thay should take.
Job analysis
A procedure for determining the knowledge and skills needed for a job.
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
Issues professional certificates to teachers who possess extensive professional knowledge and the ability to perform at a high level.
Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC)
Develops performance-based standards for what beginning teachers should know and be able to do.
Problem-solving orientation
An approach to teaching that places primary emphasis on the teacher's role as a decision maker and problem solver.
Professional standards boards
State agencies to regulate and improve the professional practice of teachers, and administrators, and other education personnel.
Microteaching
A brief, single-concept lesson taught by a teacher education student to a small group of students; ussually designed to give the education student an opportunity to practice a specific teaching skill.
What are the (6) steps of microteaching?
1.Identify a specifice teaching skill.
2.Read about the skill.
3.Observe a master teacher demonstrating the skill.
4.Prepare a 3-5 min. lesson to demonstrate skill.
5.Teach and video tape your lesson.
6.Critique yourself with another instructor.
Teaching simulations
An activity in which teacher education students participate in role-plays designed to create situations comparable to those actually encountered by teachers.
Practicum
Short term field-based experience that allows teacher education students to spend time observing and assisting in classrooms.
Induction programs
Programs of support for beginning teachers, usually during their first year of teaching.
What are the purposes of induction and internship programs?
1.To improve teaching performances.
2. To increase the retention of promising beginning teachers.
3.To promote the personal and professional well-being of beginning teachers by improving teachers' attitudes toward themselves and the profession.
4.To satisfy mandated requirements related to induction and certification.
5.To transmit the culture of the system to beginning teachers.
School-based teacher education
A model of teacher preparation through which professional coursework is presented onsite at a school, usually to students who ahve a bachelor's degree.
What are the contents of a professional portfolio? (10)
1. Lesson plans.
2.Curriculum materials.
3.Reflections on your development as a teacher.
4. Journal entries.
5.Writing assignments made by your instructor.
6.Sample tests you have prepared.
7.Critiques of textbooks.
8.Evaluations of students' work at the level for which you are preparing to teach.
9.Sample letters to parents.
10.Resume.
Educational philosophy
A set of ideas and beliefs about education that guide the professional behaviors of educators.
What are the branches of philosophy?
1.Metaphysics
2.Epistemology
3.Axiology
Metaphysics
Concerned with explaining, as rational and as comprehensively as possible, the nature of reality. What is reality? What is the world made of? What doest mean to exist? What is humankind's place in the scheme of things?
Epistemology
Concerned with the nature of knowledge and what it means to know something.
Axiology
The study of values, including the identification of criteria for determining what is valuable. Interest not only in the quantity of knowledge that students acquire but also in the quality of life that becomes possible because of that knowledge.
Aesthetics
Concerned with values related to beauty and art.
Logic
The process of reasoning and identifies rules that will enable the thinker to reach valid conclusions.
Deductive thinking
Move from a general principle to a specific conclusion that is valid.
Inductive thinking
Moves from specific to the general.
Socratic questioning
A method of questioning designed to lead students to see errors and inconsistencies in their thinking, based on questioning strategies.
What are five modern philosophical orientations to teaching?
1.Perennialism
2.Essentions
3.Progressivism
4.Existentialism
5.Social reconstructionsim
Perennialism
Emphasizes the ideas contained in the Great Books and maintains that the true purpose of education is discovery of the universal, or perennial, truth of life.
Essentialism
Holds that a core of common knowledge about the real world should be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way.The basics needed to become productive members of society.
Progressivism
Belief that life is evolving in a positive direction, that people may be trusted to act in their own best interests, and that education should focus on the needs and interests of students.Knowledge that is true in the present may not be true in the future.
Existentialism
Emphasizes the individual's experience and maintains that each individual must determine his or her own meaning of existence.
Social Reconstructionism
Holds that schools should take the lead in changing or reconstructing society.
Humanistic psychology
Emphasizes personal freedom, choice, awareness, and personal responsibilit. Encourages to question authority.
Humanism
Belief that individuals control their own destinies through the application of their intelligence and learning.
Behaviorism
Belief that our behavior is really determined by forces inthe environment that shape our behavior.
Constructivism
Views learning as an active process in which learners construct understanding of the material they learn.
Cognitive science
The study of the mental processes students use in thinking and remembering.Ma
Massachusetts Act of 1642
Required each town to determine of their young children can read and write. Parents and apprentices' masters whose children were unable to could be fined and, possibly, lose custody of their children.
Massachusetts Act of 1647
Mandated the establishment and support of schools.
Normal schools
Publicly funded training schools for teachers.
Progressive movement
A movement during the 1920s and 1930s to create schools that emphasized democracy, children's interests and needs, and closer connections between school and community.
What are the three general patterns of trends in U.S. Education?
1.Americanization
2.Demoratization
3.Professionalization
National Defense Education Act of 1958
A 1958 federally sponsored program to promote research and innovation in science, mathematics, modern foreign languages, and guidance.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
A 1954 landmark U.S. Supreme Court case rejectiing the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society Program, this act allocated federal funds on the basis of the number of poor children in school districts.
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act
States that "no person in the United States shall, onthe basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to dicrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
A 1975 federal act that guarantees a free and appropriate education to all handicapped children.
What did Puritans believe about children?
That they were naturally corrupt and sinful and should be disciplined sternly.
Horrace Mann
A strong advocate for state-supported, free common schools.
Morrill Land-Grant Act
Passed in 1862, provided federal land for colleges and set a precedent for federal involvement in education.
Prosocial values
Values such as honesty, patriotism, fairness, and civility that promote the well-being of a society.
Magnet school
A school offering a curriculum that focuses on a specific area such as the performing arts, mathematics, science, international studies, or technology. Developed to promote voluntary desegregation.
School culture
The collective "way of life" characteristic of a school; a set of beliefs, values, traditions, and ways of thinking and behaving that distinguish it from other schools.
Self-contained classroom
An organizational structure for schools in which one teacher instructs a group of students in a single classroom.
Open-space schools
Schools that have large instructional areas with movable walls and furniture that can be rearranged easily.
Departmentalization
An organizational arrangement for schools in which students move from classroom to classroom for instruction in different subject areas.
What are the (7) characteristics of a successful school?
1.Strong leadership
2.High expectations
3.Emphasis on basic skill
4.Orderly school environment
5.Frequent, systematic evaluation of student learning.
6.Sense of purpose
7.Collegiality and a sense of community.
Latchkey children
Children who, because of family circumstances, must spend part of each day unsupervised by a parent or guardian.
Peer counseling
An arrangement whereby teachers grow professionally by observing one another's teaching and providing constructive feedback.
Full service schools
Schools that provide students and their families with medical, social, and human services, in addition to their regular educational programs.
School-Based Interprofessional Case Management
An approach to education in which professional trained case managers work directly with teachers, the community, and families to coordinate and deliver appropriate services to at-risk students and their families.
Compensatory education programs
Federally funded educational programs designed to meet the needs of low-ability students from low-income families.
Pullout programs
The student leaves the regular classroom to receive additional instruction individually or in small groups.
Alternative school
A samll, highly individualized school seperate from a regular school; designed to meet the needs of students at risk.
School-within-a-school
An alternative school (within a regular school) designed to meet the needs of students at risk.
Restructuring
Reorganizing how schools are controlled at the local level so that teachers, principals, parents, and community members have greater atuhority.
School-based management
Various approaches to school improvement in which teachers, principals, students, parents, and community members manage individual schools and share in the decision-making processes.
Block grants
A form of federal aid given directly to the states, which a state or local education agency may spend as it wishes with few limitations.
Entitlements
Federal programs to meet the educational needs of special populations.
Full-funding programs
State programs to ensure statewide financial equity by setting the same per-pupil expenditure level for all schools and districts.
Redistricting
The practice of redrawing district boundaries to equalize educational funding by reducing the range of variation in the ability of school districts to finance education.
Vertical equity
An effort to provide equal educational opportunity within state by providing different levels of funding based on economic needs within school districts.
Categorical aid
State-appropriated funds to cover the costs of educating students with special needs.
Voucher system
Funds allocated to parents that they may use to purchase education for their children from public or private schools in the area.
Privatization movement
Umbrella term for reform initiatives that seek to run public schools as private enterprises.
Charter schools
Independent schools, often founded by teachers, that are given a charter to operate by a school district, state, or national government, with the provision that students must demonstrate mastery of predetermined outcomes.