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51 Cards in this Set

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Steps for forming a hypothesis
1. ID the problem (observe)
2. Ask questions (attempt to formulate a solution to the problem)
3. Formulate a hypothesis (explanations to answer the questions. language must be well-defined to eliminate erroneous interpretation)
Identify the six parts of a scientific argument
1. ID the problem
2. Ask questions
3. Hypothesis development
4. Data Collection and Experimentation
5. Analysis
6. Conclusion
Define
Deductive Reasoning
General principals lead to specific conclusions
Define
Inductive Reasoning
Specific facts lead to general principals; relies on lots of data which leads to a certain degree of confidence in a conclusion
List the 7 levels of the body from smallest to largest
1. Atoms
2. Molecules
3. Cells
4. Tissues
5. Organs
6. Organ systems
7. Organism
What is an Atom?
The smallest possible piece of an element that retains all the properties of the element
What is a molecule?
A product of two or more atoms
What is the basic unit of all life?
Cells
What general functions do cells have? "The fundamental units of life"
1. converting energy
2. digesting food
3. excreting waste
4. Reproducing
5. Taking in oxygen
What is a tissue?
A grouping of cells of the same type that perform the same function
What are the 4 classes of Tissue?
1. Connective
2. Epithelial
3. Muscle
4. Nerve
Describe
Connective Tissue
Serves to support body parts and connect them together. Commonly has its own blood supply, but ligaments do not.
4 types of connective tissue
1. bone
2. cartilage
3. adipose (fat)
4. blood vessel
Describe
Epithelial Tissue
Type of tissue that lines organs, covers the body and produces secretions (glandular tissue). Commonly exists in sheets and does NOT have its own blood supply.
Epithelial Tissues are classified according to what two criteria?
Number of cell layers
Cell Shape
Describe
Simple Epithelium
one layer of cells, found in body structures where absorption, secretion and filtration occur.
Describe
Stratified Epithelium
more than one layer of cells and serves as protection
Name
3 shapes of Epithelial Cells
1. Squamous
2. Cuboidal
3. Columnar
Describe
Muscle Tissue
Allows your body parts to move via the act of contraction and relaxation
Name & Describe
3 types of Muscle Tissue
1. Skeletal: supprts voluntary movement - its connected to bones
2. Cardiac: found only in the heart
3. Smooth: under involuntary control - found in the walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, bladder, intestines and uterus)
Describe
Nervous Tissue
Provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Nerves are made of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body.
Circulatory System
AKA Cardiovascular System -
Digestive System
Consists of
Endocrine System
Serves to control body functions
Integumentary System
Consists of
Lymphatic System
Consists of
Muscular System
Consists of
Nervous System
Consists of
Reproductive System
Serves to produce offspring
Respiratory System
Keeps the body's cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Consists of
Skeletal System
Provides support and protection for the body and its organs and supplies a framework which helps to create movement
Urinary System
AKA Excretory System - Helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body, regulates the acid-base balance of the blood and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.
Define Anatomical Position
A standard position: face-forward, feet are parallel, arms at the sides with palms facing forward
Define Superior (position)
Situated above or higher than another part
Define Inferior (position)
Situated below or lower than another part (opposite superior)
Define Anterior
Front or toward the front of the body or body structure
Define Posterior
Back or toward the back of the body or body structure(opposite of anterior)
Define Medial or median
In the middle or toward the middle of the body
Define Lateral
On the side or toward the side of the body (opposite of medial)
Define Intermediate (position)
between medial and lateral
Define Proximal
Nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
Define Distal
Farther from the point of attachment or the trunch of the body (distance) (opposite of proximal)
Define Superficial
Near the surface of the body
Define Deep (in relation to body location)
away from or below the surface of the body (opposite of Superficial)
Define Prone
Lying on the stomach, face down
Define Supine
Lying on the back, face up (opposite of Prone)
What are the three anatomic planes?
1. Frontal Plane: divides the body into a front (anterior) portion and a rear (posterior) portion
2. Sagittal Plane: divides the body lenthwise into right and left sections
(Midsagittal) down middle
(Longitudinal) any point
3. Transverse plane: divides body horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) portions (anywhere along the body: cross sections)
What are the two main body cavities and what sub-cavities do they house?
1. Dorsal Cavity
a. Cranial cavity: brain
b. spinal cavity: spinal cord
2. Ventral Cavity (divided by the diaphram)
a. thoracic cavity: heart and lungs
b. abdominal: stomach, liver, gall-bladder, spleen, most intestines;
c. pelvic: reproductive organs, bladder, rectum and lower portion of the intestines
Name the regions of the abdomen
1. Epigastric: above the stomach and in the central part of the abdomen just above the naval
2. Hypochondriac: lies to the right and left of the epigastric region and just below the cartilage of the rib cage
3. Hypogastric: Below the stomach and in the central part of the abdomen just below the navel
4. Iliac: lies to the right and left fo the hypogastric regions near the hip bones
5. Umbilical: the area aroudn the navel
6. Lumbar: Froms the region of the lower back to the right and left fo the umbilical region
What are the two major portions of the body?
1. Axial
2. Appendicular: limbs
List the 8 functions of the human body
1. Adaptation: receive, interpret & respond to stimuli (nervous system)
2. Circulation: transport Oxygen and nutrients (cardiovascular)
3. Elimination: remove metabolic wastes (urinary system)
4. Locomotion: voluntary and involuntary movement (musculoskeletal & nervous)
5. Nutrition: take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism (digestive)
6. Oxygenation: take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide (respiratory)
7. Regulation: hormonal control of body functions (endocrine system)
8. Self-Duplication: production of offspring (reproductive system)