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117 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Investigations
involve critical thinking
establish sound procedures in a variety of areas
conducted to identify potential problems and to create procedures for emergency situations. This proactive approach can save lives.
If existing procedure fails to solve problem. Which can lead to new solutions not previously considered. Leading to radically new designs that improve the quality of life.
quantitative
numerical
Scientific Method Order
1. Problem Identification
2. Question Asking
3. Hypothesis Development
4. Data Collection and Hypothesis
5. Analysis
6. Conclusion
hypothesis
explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated
Steps for forming a hypothesis
1. Identify the problem
2. Ask questions
3. Formulate a hypothesis
Data Collection Steps
1. Observation
2. Measurement
3. Samples
4. Organization
Experimentation
Involves comparing a control group to an experimental group.
deductive reasoning
when conclusions follow a general principle.
inductive reasoning
when conclusions are formed from specific facts.
anatomy
study of the structure of organs and body systems
physiology
the study of the function of the organs and body systems
atoms
smallest parts of elements that still retain all the original properties of the element
molecule
a chemical bonding of atoms that posess its own characteristics independent of the atoms themselves
Cells
formed when specific molecules combine together.

basic unit of all life
Tissues
cells combine in terms of function and type to form tissues.
Organ
2 or more tissues collaborate to perform a specific function
Organ system
When organs work together to complete a specific task
organism
highest level of organization... happens when organ systems work together within the body
4 Tissue Types
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
Epethelial Tissue Functions
1. Provide covering
2. Produce secretions
Characteristics of Epethelial Tissue
Exists in sheets
Does not have a blood supply
Regenerates easily
Epethelial Tissue Categorization
1. Number of cell layers
2. Cell Shape
Simple Epethelium
1 layer of cells
Found in body structures where aborption, secretion, and filtration occur.
Shapes of epethilial cells
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
Stratified Epithilium
more than one layer of cells
serves as protection
Connective Tissue
Connects different structures of the body
Usually has its own blood supply (excep. ligaments)
Types of Connective Tissue
bone
cartilage
adipose (fat)
blood vessel
Muscle Tissue
Produces movement
Three types of muscle tissue
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
Skeletal Muscle
support voluntary movement since it is connected to the skeletal system.
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary control
Found in hollow organs such as intestines, blood vessels, bladder, uterus.
Cardiac Muscle
involuntary
only found in the heart
Nervous Tissue
Provides structure for the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
Nerves
composed of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body.
Myelin
Protects the nervous tissue
Circulatory System
(what it includes)
AKA cardiovascular system
Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Digestive System
(what it includes)
Includes all the organs from the mouth to the anus that involve the ingestion and breakdown of food.
The _______ system manufactures enzymes that break down food so that the _______ can be easily passed into the blood for use throughout the body.
digestive, nutrients
Where does absorption of nutrients take place?
small intestine
Parts of the small intestine
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
Function of Liver
Produce bile that breaks down fats
Function of Pancreas
Delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion.
Endocrine System
fx
Serves to control body functions.
Glands in the endocrine system secrete hormones that travel through the blood to organs throughout the body.
Integumentary System
(what it includes)
Consists of skin, mucus membranes, hair and nails.
Integumentary System
fx
protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and helps to regulate body temperature.
Serves as a barrier to pathogens.
Lymphatic System
(what it includes)
lymph nodes
lymph vessels that carry lymph
spleen
thymus
tonsils
Lymphatic Stystem
fx
Supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes.
Returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the blood vessels.
Muscular system
(what it includes)
skeletal muscles
tendons
ligaments

(cardiac and smooth muscles are NOT included in this organ system)
Tendons
connect muscles to bones
Ligaments
attach bones together to form joints
Nervous System
(what it includes)
brain
spinal cord
nerves
Nervous System
fx
bodies control system
Reproductive System
fx
Produce offspring
Reproductive System
(what it includes)
testes
penis
ovaries
vagina
breasts
Respiratory System
fx
Keeps the bodies cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide as it is released from cells.
Repiratory System
(what it includes)
nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs
Alveoli
tiny air sacs within the lungs.
Through the walls of the alveoli oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs through small blood vessels called arterioles.
Skeletal System
fx
provides support and protection for the body and its organs
Supplies a framework that when used in conjunction with the muscles creates movement.
Serves as a storage system for minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.
Skeletal System
(what it includes)
bones
cartilage
ligaments
joints
Urinary System
fx
helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body
Regulates the acid-base balance of the blood
Removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.
Anatomical position
a standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parralel to each other and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing upward.
Superior
toward the upper end of the body
Inferior
toward the lower end of the body
Anterior
toward the front of the body
Posterior
toward the back of the body
Medial
toward the middle of the body
Lateral
toward the outer sides of the body
Intermediate
between medial and lateral
Proximal
close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Distal
away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment
Superficial
toward or at the body surface
Deep
away from or below the body surface
Sagittal Section
cut made a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal Section
saggital section made down the median of the body
Transverse Section
cut made along the horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions
Frontal section
Cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions
Dorsal Body Cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
Ventral Body Cavity
contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Adaption
receive, interpret, and respond to internal and external stimuli via the nervous system
Circulation
transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via the cardiovascular system
Elimination
remove metabolic wastes from the body renal system
Locomotion
allow voluntary and involuntary movement of the body via the musculosketal and neurological systems
Nutrition
take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via the digestive system
Oxygenation
take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via the repiratory system
Regulation
hormonal control of body functions via the endocrine system
Self-Duplication
production of offspring via the reproductive system
Maintaining Boundries
The cells in the human body are eukaryotic cells, which means they are surrounded by a membrane as are organelles inside the cells. The membrane, which is semipermeable, allows some substances to pass through while restricting others. The integumentary system that surrounds the entire body protects it from environmental stimuli and pathogens.
Responding to Environmental Changes
The human body has the ability to sense and repond to environmental stimuli, both voluntarily and involuntarily. An individual's ability to physically move away from danger is an example of a voluntary response. The hand's ability to withdraw from painful stimuli before the brain percieves the pain is an example of an involuntary reflex response.
Moving
The primary purpose of muscular tissue is to support movement of the body. The muscular system moves the bones in the skeletal system and this movement is voluntary. The muscular tissues in the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary, reproductive, urinary, and respiratory systems also support movements and this movement is involuntary.
Ingesting and Digesting
The organs in the digestive system work to remove nutrients from food in the digestive system, the waste that remains is excreted from the body using organs in both the digestive system amd the urinary system.
Reproducing
reproductive system plays a key role in reproduction, and hormones regulate this process.
Growing
Growth occurs due to changes in several body systems.
The skeletal and muscular systems change shape. The digestive system removes needed nutrients from food. The cardiovascular system transports these nutrients to the cells. The endocrine system releases hormones that signal when and how much growth should occur.
Excreting
Once nutrients have been removed from food in the digestive system, the waste that remains is excreted from the body using organs in both the urinary and digestive system.
Metabolizing
Metabolizing is the use of energy by cells as a result of chemical reactions within the cells. The digestive and respiratory systems supply the nutrients and oxygen that the body needs to support metabolism. The blood distributes these materials throughout the body and hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine system regulate the body's metabolism.
Circulatory System
fx
It supports the circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body.
homeostasis
when all the needs of the body are met and all the organ systems are working properly, the body is in a stable state
heart
contracts and pumps blood throughout the body. Rhythmic contractions of the heart enable blood to be transported throughout the body.
arteries
blood vessels that transport blood from the capillaries back to the heart
capillaries
tiny blood vessels that transport blood from arteries to veins within the body.
Also serve as the location for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, fluid, and nutrients within the body.
4 Chambers of the heart
Right atrium
Left atrium
Right ventricle
Left ventricle
4 Valves of the Heart
Prevent the flow of blood back into the heart's chambers after a contraction.
Tricuspid (R)
Pulmonary (R)
Mitral (L)
Aortic (L)
Flow of blood through the heart
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood travels into the right atrium and, during the contraction of the atrium, flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The blood is pushed through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventricle contracts. Here, it picks up oxygen. The oxygenated blood is then carried back to the heart (by the pulmonary veins), into the left atrium, through the mitral valve, and into the left ventricle. Contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through the aortic valve, through the aorta, and out to the body.
lungs
fx
breathing in oxygen
exhaling carbon dioxide
The respiratory system supplies the body with _______ and removes _______.
oxygen, carbon dioxide
It is through the walls of the ______ that oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the capillaries in the lungs.
alveoli
Inspiration
Act of taking in oxygenated air
Expiration
When oxygen is forced out of the body
Central Nervous System
brain
spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
cranial and spinal verves that extend beyond the CNS
Autonomic Nervous System
controls body functions, like heartbeat and digestion
Sympathatic nerves
active when a person is excited or scared
Parasympathetic nerves
active when a person is eating or at rest
sensory-somatic nervous system
(what its made of)
12 pairs of cranial nerves
31 pairs of spinal nerves
ganglia (collections of nerve cell bodies)
sensory-somatic nervous system
fx
controls voluntary actions like talking and walking
dendrites
recieve stimuli from the internal and external environment... take stimuli to neurons
neurons
specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages
axon
connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a synapse