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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell
Basic unit of life
Cell Theory
-All cells arise from preexisting cells.
-Cells can carry out the processes of life.
-Organisms are madeof cells that function together.
Prokaryote cells
-Single-celled organisms such as bacteria.
-Does NOT have a nucleus.
-All have a cell wall.
Eukaryote cells
Multi-cellular organisms such as plants and animals.
DNA
-Deoxyribonucleic Acid
-Carries the genetic code
Nucleus
-Responsible for the activities of the cell regarding DNA, including the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA
-Has its own membrane which allows for the passage of materials and proteins needed for DNA replication.
Ribosomes
-Responsible for the production of proteins.
-Can be free or bound to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-Two types: Smooth & Rough
-Rough has ribosomes attached to the outer surface
-Rough produces proteins
-Smooth works to transport proteins out of the cell
Golgi Bodies
-Modifies and packages proteins
-take on the process of exocytosis so materials can be secreted from the cell
Lysosomes
-"suicide sacs of the cell"
-digests proteins
-uses its digestive enzymes to break down parts of the cell that are no longer needed
Vacuoles
Sacs in cell that store materials for later use
Mitochondria
-"powerhouses" of cell
-produce energy needed for life
-Carry out aerobic respiration
-Have an inner and outer membrane
-Folds in the inner membrane called cristae are packed with proteins for the electron transport chain to function so that mitochandria can continuously produce ATP
Chloroplasts
-Present in plants
-Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton
-provide shape and structure to the cell with microtubule fibers made of protein
Cilia/Flagella
Located outside of the cell making it possible for cell to move
Cell membrane
-Contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions to keep wqater in and out of the cell
-Selectively permeable
-Has proteins for transport
-Has carbohydrates for cell identification
Cell Wall
-Present in plant cells
-Cellulose-containing
-Helps give the plant cell rigidity
Diffusion
Particles naturally move from area of high concentration (a tea bag) to area of low concentration (boiled water)
Give two examples of substances that can diffuse through the membrane based on their concentrations both inside and outside the cell.
Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
Osmosis
-Water diffuses across a membrane
-By doing so the water dilutes a solution that is inside or outside of a cell in an attempt to equalize the concentrations
Isotonic Solution
-the concentration inside and out the cell are the same
Hypotonic Solution
-the solution outside the cell has a lower concentration of solutes than the solution inside the cell.
-water moves from the outside solution into the cell in an attempt to dilute the concentrations in the cell
-causes the cell to swell and/or burst
Hypertonic Solution
-outside solution has higher concentration of solute than the cell
-water leaves the cell in an effort to dilute the outside solution
-causes the cell to shrivel and shrink
Passive Transport
-transportation that occurs from a high concentration to a low concentration naturally ane without any additional energy input
Active Transport
-takes place when materials need to be moved from an area of low concentration to one of higher concentration
-because this works against the natural process, the cell must use energy
Organic & Inorganic molecules
-needed for life to carry out its functions
Organic
- carbon-based
-include lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids
Inorganic
- without carbon
-include ions, iron, calcium, water
Water
-universal solvent
-can dissolve a range of substances that are polar
Polar
contain ions
Cohesive Forces
-forces between the same molecules
Adhesive Forces
-forces between different molecules
Carbohydrates
-organic compunds that contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
-major sources of energy in the body
Monosaccharides
-simplest sugars
-ex. Glucose and fructose
Dehydration Synthesis
-combination of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and starches occurs with the removal of water via this method
Hydrolysis
-Opposide of Dehydration Synthesis
-larger starches (polysaccharides) have water added to break them down into simple sugars used by cells
Proteins
-carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, & nitrogen
-long chains of amino acids joined via a dehydration synthesis
Peptide Bond
The bond formed from the reaction of the amine group of one molecule reacting with the caroxylic acid group of another amino acid to form a dipeptide.
Enzymes
-complex proteins that function to regulate the rate at which reactions occur
-catalysts that aim to lower the amount of energy it takes for a reaction to occur
Lipids
-made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (very little oxygen in comparison to carbohydrates)
-made from the dehydration synthesis of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules
-a fat chain containing all single bonds is classified as saturated fat
-a fat chain containing a double bond is classified as unsaturated
-stored by the body as an energy reserve
-can provide about twice as much energy per gram as proteins or carbs
-can also provide insulation preventing heat loss
Nucleic Acids
-building blocks of DNA and RNA (ribonucleic acid)
-contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, along with nitrogen and phosphorus atoms as well
-each contains a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base
-the phosphate group are what join the nucleic acids in a chain
-the nitrogen bases can pair up with a complimentary base to form the double-stranded DNA