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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Whole Language
uses only trade-book literature where words are never broken down or removed from context
Balanced Literacy Program
teaches reading and writing based on student needs and within the context of appropriately leveld reading materials (often uses basal readers, decodable text, and daily encounters with fiction and non-fiction
all all children become independent
Eclectic Approach
teachers borrow elements from two or more approaches to create their own approach
Bottom-Up
progressing from the parts of langauge (letters) to the whole word (meaning)
(letters, Words, Sentences, Paragraphs, Texts, Meaning)
Gestaltist or Top-Down Theory
information and experiences the reader brings to print drive the reading process rather than the print on a page
Emergent Literacy
becoming literate begins at birth and is a continuous, developmental process
Vygotsky
an individual's cognitive capacity was determined by heridity
Zone of Proximal Development
What a child can do alone and in collaboration with others
Linguistics
study of langauge structure and how it is used by people to communicate
Psycholinguistics
study of how language is used and organized in the mind
Sociolinguistics
study of how langauge relates to human and societal behaviors
Langauge Acquisition
study of how infants learn and use langauge to meet their needs and express their ideas
Schemata
constructing meaning from print based on prior knowledge and experience with the content
Syntactic Cueing
proper use of syntax(how langauge is ordered) to know what comes next
Pragmatics
study of how language is used in society to satisfy the needs of human communication
Prephonemic Stage
children begin to use letters to represent their meaning
Scope and Sequence Chart
describes the range of skills to be taught in a basal program
Decodable Text
Uses highly controlled vocabulary to reinforce
Balanced Reading Program
Reading To Children, Reading With Children, and Reading By Children
Reconciled Reading Lesson
teaching reading skills before reading and relating them to the slection to be read
Directed Reading Thinking Activity
Sample the Text, Make Predictions, Sample the Text to Confirm or Correct Predictions
Fragmentation
curricular practice of listing, teaching, and measuring reading skills in isolation from other langauge skills
Integration
putting skills of langauge and components of the langauge together
Decode
understand meaning of words
Encode
to put words into print
Assonance
repitition of a vowel sound
Graphophonic Cueing
Shows How Printed Language Works (directionality, word vs letter, relationship between letters and sounds
Environmental Print
Print found in the environment ( boxex, signs, bumper stickers, candy wrappers)
Phonological Awareness
gerneral term for oral language units as words, syllables, and sounds
Phonemic Awareness
spoken words are made of individual sounds
Ability Grouping
Dividing children based on reading ability and achievement
Yopp-Singer Sementation Test
and Shefelbine Basic Phonic Skills Test
a test used to show a student's ability to discriminate sounds and segment words into phonemes
Tests rhyming, blending, substitution, and deletion
Assesment Tool Categories
1. Student PRofile
2. Auditory Discrimination and Phoneme Awareness
3. Emerging Literacy assessment
4. Sight Word Assessment
5. Formal Reading Assessment
Types of Student Profile Tools
Burke Interview, Concepts of Print Inventory, Home Survey, (most are qualitative rather than quantitative
Types of Emerging Literacy Assesments
environmetal print asessment, name literacy, bookhandling, Stages of Writing
Types of Sight Word Assessments
These tests are designed to indicate the number of words a student recognizes upon sight (Dolch Sight Word and Second Language Assessment)
Independent Reading Level
level a student can read a text on his own (95% Accuracy)
Instructioal Reading Level
level a student can read with the assistance of a teacher (85-95% accuracy)
Frustration Reading Level
a level students shouldn't read (below 85%)
Ways to Determine Reading Level
1. Cloze Procedure
2. Basic Reading Inventory
3. Ekwall Shanker Reading Inventory
Components of a Reading Program
1. Reading - engagement of the written word
2. Oral Language - makes connection between oral and written
3. Writing - allow students to practice (air writing, sand writing, tracing)
4. Spelling - spelling correlates with ability to identify words
Letter-Sound Knowledge
tests how letters are related to sounds
Onset-Rime
tests weather a student can identify which word as a different onset or rime
Word-Blending Tests
tests students ability to take separate sounds and blend them into words
Word Blending
combining separate phonemes into a word
Test for Concept About Print
Book Handling - ask front of book, open book, a page in the book,
Left to right Progression
when reading or writing moving from the left
Return Sweep
when the end of a line is reached begin of the next line
One-to-One Correspondence
word-tow-rod correspondence with written and oral language
Word Boundaries
collection of letters surrounded by spaces or puncuation
Shared or guided Reading Characteristics
models left to right progression, return sweep, one-to-one correspondence
Systematic Explicit Phonics
refers to a program in which letter-sound correspondences are taught from basic to complex
Rosner Test
determines how phonemically aware a student is
Shelfbine Test
assesses phonemic awareness and basic phonics concepts
Wide Range Achievemnt Test
assesses reading and spelling ability
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
measures a student's abilty to decode words
Running Record Assessment
completing a detailed record of a child's errors and decoding strategies
Clues to Help Decode Words
Semantic
Syntactic
Picture
Graphophonic
Syllable Division
Syntactic Cues
word order clues ( My dog likes to (should understnad a verb fits in the sentence)
Graphophonic Cues
Sounding Out a words to identify phonemes within a word
Consonat Cluster
a sequence of consonants that appear together in a syllable without a vowel between them
Semiphonetic Spelling
aware of the alphabetic principle and will make an attempt to confirm spelling to that principle
Transitional Spelling
use morpholigal and visual information to spell a word instead of phonics alone
Reciprocal Teaching
by Palinesar and Brown
a comprehension strategy where students are responsible for predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing
Holistic Scoring
assigns one score to the entire writing
Analytic Scoring
assigns several sub scores and teacher gives feedback
Semantic Map
a map that deomstrates multiple relationships between a concept and the knowledge associated with it(helps student identify existing knowledge)