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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two oxidative decarboxylation reactions
pyruvate --> acetyl CoA

α-ketogluterate -->Succinyl CoA
What are the 5 coenzymes required for oxidative decarboxylation in the TCA cyclle
TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate), Lipoic acid, CoA, FAD, NAD+
dihydrolipoyl transacetylase
E2 in the oxidative decarboxylation reactions. Lysine of the enzyme forms an amide bond with the carboxyl group of lipoic acid
2 functions of Coenzyme A
1. universal carrier of acyl groups
2. forms activated thioesters
Pantothenic Acid
A B-vitamin that is part of coenzyme A
Cannot be synthesized by humans
No known deficiency
Structural components of Coenzyme A
Pantothenic Acid
β-mercaptoethylamine (contains reactive SH)
Niacin deficiency
Symptoms: dermatitis, diarrhea, and dimentia
Thiamine Deficiencies
Beriberi: dry and wet
Wernicke-Korsakoff: defective transketolase with less affinity for TPP
Vitamin B2
component of FAD and FMN
contains isoalloxanine rind and C5 ribitol
no major deficiencies associated
Intracellular location of the electron transport chain
inner mitochondrial membrane
What are the inhibitors of the ETC and where specifically do they act
Rotenone: FP1 --> CoQ
Sodium Amytal: FP1 --> CoQ
Antimycin A: Cytb --> CytC1
Cyanide: Cyt (a+a3) ---> oxygen
Sodium Azide: Cyt (a+a3) ---> oxygen

Carbon Monoxide: Cyt(a+a3) ---> oxygen
What are the distinguishing features of CoenzymeQ
It's a lipid, not a protein and is not permanetly bound to the membrane. It's a mobile carrier of electrons between complexes I, II, and III
What are 4 uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
1. 2,4-dinitrophenol
2. dicumarol
3. fatty acids in brown adipose tissue
4. uncoupling proteins
What are the components of the 4 complexex in the ETC
I: FMN, and FeS (aka FP1)
II: FAD and FeS (aka SDH)
III: Cytb, Cytc1, FeS
IV: Cyt (a+a3), Cu2+ (aka cytochrome oxidase)
How does ADP regulate oxidative phosphorylation
Exerts respiratory control; electrons are transfered to oxygen only if ADP is phosphorylated to ATP. The entry of ADP into the mitochondria requires the exit of ATP via facilitated exchange diffusion, which can be inhibited by atractyloside
An inhibitor of the carrier protein that transports ADP into the mitochondria. Stops oxidative phosphorylation due to a lack of ADP
Chiemiosmotic Hypothesis
Movement of e- down the ETC liberates energy that is used to pump H+ out of the cell. This gradient is then used to drive ATP Sythase and make ATP.
Inhibits ATP Synthase