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98 Cards in this Set

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a flexible planar substance constructed from solutions, fibers, yarns, or fabrics, in any combination
any substance, natural or manufactured, with a high lenght-to-width ratio and with suitable characteristics for being processed into fabric; the smallest component, hairlike in nature, that can be seperated from a fabric
any process used to add color and enhance performance of gray goods (unfinished fabrics)
any fabric that has not been finished
gray goods (grey or greige goods)
a term originally applied only to woven fabrics, now generally applied to fibers, yarns, fabrics, or products made of fibers, yarns or fabrics
an assemblage of fibers that is twisted or laid together so as to form a continuous strand that can be made into a textile fabric
the deisgn and enginerring of a product so that it has the desire serviceability characteristics, appeals to the target market, can be made within an acceptable amount of time for a reasonable cost and can be sold at a profit
product development
the measure of a textile products abilitiy to meet consumers needs
product serviceablity
the manner in which a textile, textile component, or textile product responds to use or how it responds when exposed to some environmental factor that might adversely affect it.
the only natural filament fiber
fibers are short, finite length (less than 10")
fibers are very long, infinite length
all natural
fibers are staple fibers, except for silk
all manufactured
fibers produced in filament form but are cut into staple length
things you can see by the eye: length, shape/contour, crimp
things that require you to look under the microscope: cross sectional shape
submicroscopic structure
with higher magnification you can see the component parts of the fiber
fine structure
structure at the molecular level.
giant molecules that have high molecular weight. made from small molecules called monomers
Degree of Polymerization
the number of monomer molecules linked together to form the polymer chain
polymer chains arranged in random disorganized way:
yields to extension
holds water
when molecules are closely packed together: high strength **polymer chains are parallel*
a measure of the linear density of the fiber: 9000 meter length of fiber
100 meter length of fiber
the appearance to the eye of how a fabric hangs
describes the feeling in hte hand of the fiber
initiual resistance to tensile force before break. Measure of stiffness.
a measure of the tensile STRENTGH of the fiber
a measure of the amount a fiber stretchs to the point of rupture
abrasion resistance
ability to withstand abrasive forces.

Ex: upholstery of a cars interior.
elastic recovery
a measure of the abilityof the fiber to RECOVER from a stretching deformation
ex: lawnchair, seatbelt
a measure of the ability of the fiber to recover from a compressive force
ex: carpet
ability of fiber to take up moisture from the body or from the environment
the measure of the moisture content of the fiber in standard conditions
textile labeling (TFPIA) must have on label...
fiber content in decending order (not required to put if less than 5%), generic name, manufacturs name, RN #, country/origin
can use generic terms
yarn forward
tell the country where each part of the garment was made. where fabric was woven/knitted, where it was dyed, where it was cut and sewn, where the yard was produced etc.
types of cotton
american upland
sea island
egyptian- extra long staple
pima- extra long staple domestic
mercerized cotton
fabrics or yarns treated with strong sodium hydroxide solutions usually under tension
poor elastic recovery
poor resilience
high regain
damaged by acids
stronger when wet
subject to mildew
swells in water
bast fiber
taken from the stem of the plant
stronger than cotton (more crystalline)
more absorbent than cotton
high regain
poor elastic recovery and resilience
lambs wool
never been used before
virgin wool
fibers from the lambs first sheering (more fine)
high elongation
good elastic recovery and reslience
has scales (go in 1 direction)
shrinks in heat/moisture
stronger than wool, less elastic recovery and reslilence
weak when wet
absorbency good
degrades in acid
the twisting of manufactured fibers
tape yarns (description)
inexpensive yarns produced from extruded polymer films.

coarse and used in carpet backing, rope, cord
monofilament yarns (uses)
industrial uses such as fish line, sewing thread, nets
bulk yarn aka bulk-continuous filament yarns
yarn that is processed to have greater covering power than a convential yarn of equal linear denisty and of the same basic material with normal twist
bulk yarns vs. smooth filament yarns
bulk yarns are:
more absorbant, more permeable to moisture, better bulk, cover, elasticty, static buildup is lower, do not pill or shed
spun yarns
continuous strand of staple fibers held together in some way
high twist vs. low twist yarns
low twist has more air space and his better insulation

*yarns with more trapped air insulate better*
ring spinning
yarns are finer, smoother, better quality, more uniform, and have less problems in fabrication
open-end spinning
yarns have harsher hand, and are weaker and more sensitvie to abrasion but more uniform and opaque in appearance.
intimate mixture of fibers from different generic type, compostion, length, diameter or color spun together in one yarn
high-bulk yarns
yarns that are essentially free from stretch
yarns of different generic types within a fabric
ply yarns
spiral arrangement of fibers around the yarn's axis
amount of twist
varies on fiber lenght, yarn size and intended use
low twist
smooth-filament yarns
napping twist
lofty spun yarns
average twist
made of stable fibers
yarn number
yarn size of fineness

expressed in terms of weight per unit length
yarn number is an indirect or fixed weight system because...
the finer the yarn, the larger the number
simple yarn
alike in all its parts and has one strand
ply yarn
made by a second twisting operating that combines two or more singles
made by a third-twisting operation which twistsply yarns together
sewing thread
yarn intended for stiching materials together using machine or hand processes
fancy yarns
yarns that deliberatly have unlike parts and that are irregular at intervals
tweed yarn
single spun fancy yarn with flecks of color twisted into the yarn to add interest
slub yarn
single spun fancy yarn with thick and thin intervals
spiral/corkscrew yarns
have two more plies
parts of a fancy yarn
1.core ply
2. effect/fancy ply
3. binder ply
ratine yarns
effect ply twisted in a spiral arrangement around the ground ply
knot/spot/nub/knop yarn
twisting the effect ply many times inthe same place
spike/snarl yarn
effect ply forms alternating open loops along both of the yarn
boucle yarn (loop or curl)
has closed loops at regular intervals along the yarn
covered yarn
yarns that have a central yarn that is compeletly covered by fiber or another yarn
core-spun yarns
stretch yarn made by spinning a sheath of staple fibers around a core
wrap-spun yarns
have a core of staple fibers wrapped or bound by filament fibers
fasciated yarns
grouping of filament fibers is wrapped with staple fibers
small knot of entangled fibers
excessive fiber ends on the yarns surface
differential friction effect contributes to which property of wool
thermoplastic fibers
acetate, nylon, polyester, olefin
the cross sectional shape of acetate fibers is crumpled because
the filament collapses when the solvent evaporates
fiber replacement for wool
heat setting...
relaxes tensions created by drawing and creates cystalline areas
second largest quantiy produced in apparel textiles
viscous deals with
the flow of polymers
polylactic fibers made from
fiber can be made from recycled soda pop bottles
imitate rubber
fiber with the lowest density. floats on water
regernated cellulose fiber
the cellulose fiber was changed chemically and then changed back to cellulose
attracted to oil
fibers with high heat and flame resistance