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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Taylor's concept of scientific management
Taylor's concept of scientific management was to determine the one, best way to perform a task, and to work with the laborers or workers to make sure that it is done efficiently, productively, and according to the plans and principles of the job, as well as reward and compensation for jobs done.
Fayol's functions of management
Fayol believed that a manager's authority should equal that manager's responsibility and that the direction and flow of authority through an organization should be unified. Specifically, there are five functions that he identifies as critical to managerial effectiveness: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling.
The Hawthorne Studies
The Hawthorne studies concluded that workers behave more productively when they feel there is a special interest placed in them. The initial idea was to find out if lighting conditions would affect the productivity, but instead they discovered that both the control and experimental groups were steadily performing better. This idea has been defined as "The Hawthorne Effect'.
Behavioral science
This approach, which was derived from the movement from which the Hawthorne studies gave way to, focuses on the behavior of people in organizations. Interacting with and using feedback from psychologists, sociologists, and other behavioral disciplines provide numerous insights into individual and group behavior in work settings and the impact of supervisory practices and procedures on employee motivation and work performance.
The Quantitative/Systems approach
The quantitative approaches rely heavily on mathematical modeling. These models attempt to quantitatively describe the interrelationships of variables through data, which can be manipulated and outcomes predicted. The use of computers has increased the feasibility of this approach.
Major managerial skills
Technical skills, Human Relations skills, Administrative skills, Conceptual skills, Political skills, and Emotional Intelligence skills
Effective communication
Effective communication means that there is a successful transfer of information, meaning, and understanding from a sender to a receiver.
Maslow's Heirarchy of needs
Maslow's Heirarchy of needs theory implies that people are motivated by the potential to satisfy a certain set of needs in a specific order. The first of these levels are Biological (Physiological) needs, followed by Security needs, Social needs, Self-respect needs, and finally, self-fulfillment needs. This is one of the most widely accepted theories of motivation. All of the needs overlap and interact with each other, creating a dynamic portrayal of human motivation.
The Motivation-Hygiene, which is also referred to as the "two-factor" or "dual-factory" theory, presents the idea that factors in the work environment affect the person's level of dissatisfaction, while job content factors influence a person's actual motivation. It holds a clear distinction between what motivates employees and what does not, which reflects the label of Motivation vs Hygiene, respectively.
Expectancy Theory
The Expectancy Theory is based on the worker's perception of the relationships among effort, performance, and reward. This theory presents the idea that workers will become motivated to work harder if they believe their enhanced efforts will improve performance, that will turn lead to desired rewards.
Equity Theory
The Equity Theory, which is based on the works of J. Stacy Adams, attempts to explain how people strive for fairness in the workplace. When an employee's perception of someone else's output receiving higher reward becomes apparent, it creates inequity. This inequity is followed by a motivation to achieve equity, or fairness, by making the outcome/input ratios equal.