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68 Cards in this Set

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about how many olfactory chemoreceptors are present in the nasal chamber?
100 million
olfactory receptors turnover every?
4-8 hours
the olfactory nerves pass through the _____ of the ____ bone to finally synapse on the ______ cell of the olfactory bulb
cribiform plate
ethmoid
mitral
the region wherein the mitral cells bodies reside is termed the _____ region ?
olfactory glomeruli
about how many glomeruli exist?
2000
How many______# Mitral cells receive stimuli from their _____ # of synapses in the glomeruli
25
1000
What do odorants bind to in the olfactory epithelium?
cilia found on receptors
What type of receptor mechanism allows for smell transduction?
G-protein gated channels (G-olf)
What 2 cells function to inhibit mitral cells in discerning particular odors received?
paraglomerular cells
granular cells
what ion channels cause depolarization for olfactory transduction?
1) Na+/ Ca++ due to increase in cAMP
2) Ca++ activated Cl- channelsexits cell increasing
the inability to smell
anosmia
important for signals for:
-territory mapping
-reproductive behaviour
-identity
-induce aggression or submission
-menstrual synchrony
pheromones
where are the receptors for pheromones located?
vomeronasal organs @ jxn of vomer:perpendicular plate of ethmoid:nasal septal cartilage
What nerve and component type receive sensory signals from pheromones?
CN V: Nasopalatine: GSA
activated mitral cells release what neurotransmitter when excited?
glutamate
activated mitral cells also excite granule cells to release ____ causing the unactivated mitral cells to be _____
GABA
inhibited
regional glomeruli that are active inhibit neighboring glomeruli by _____ cells releasing ______ neurotransmitter
Periglomerular (Tuft) cells
GABA
What are the two routes the olfactory tract can take?
Lateral Olfactory Stria
Medial Olfactory Stria
The Lateral olfactory stria terminate on 3 main sites in the brain before further relaying?
1) Piriform cortex
2) Amygdala
3) Entorhinal cortex
The continuing pathways to higher cortical regions are what 3?
1) Thalamus
2) Prefrontal cortex
3) Hippocampus (parahippocampal gurus)
what is considered the primary olfactory cortex?
amygdala (Broadmann area #34)
The Medial Olfactory Stria synapse on _____ cells on the (ipsilateral/contralateral) side to further excite or inhibit mitral cells
granule cells
contralateral
The Medial Olfactory Stria must cross @ the ____ to reach the target synapse?
Anterior commissure
smoking
chronic rhinitis
hysteria
Kallman's syndrome
Meningiomas
all may lead to what sensory phenom?
Anosmia
excessive sensitivity of smell
Hyperosmia
Pregnancy
Menopause
Irritation of nasal mucosa
- may all lead to what sensory phenom?
Hyperosmia
altered smell
Dysosmia
hallucinations
alcohol withdrawal
senile sensory cells
-all may lead to what sensory phenom?
Dysosmia
where are 75% of taste buds located?
tongue surface
Taste buds are the receptors for taste?
T/F
False:
Modified epithelial cells (chemoreceptors found within taste buds)
what is the turnover rate for taste bud chemoreceptors?
10-14 days
what cranial nerve receives taste sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Facial nerve : VII (Chordae Tympani)
what cranial nerve receives taste sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
Glossopharyngeal nerve : IX
what cranial nerve receives taste sensation from the root of the tongue?
Vagus nerve : X
what are the respective primary first order ganglia for each:
Facial nerve VII
Glosso. nerve IX
Vagus nerve X
Facial = Geniculate
Glosso = Petrosal
Vagus = Nodosal
All the second order neurons for taste conglomerate in what nucleus?
Superior portion of Solitary nucleus
about how many taste buds reside on tongue?
4000
contains 3 taste buds
consists of 24% of tongue surface
Fungiform papillae
contain 250 taste buds
make up 48% of tongue surface
Circumvallate papillae
contain 600 taste buds
make up 28% of tongue surface
Folliate papillae
contain NO taste buds
Filiform papillae
the soft/hard palate receiving taste sensation are innervated by CN ____ via _____ nerve branches
VII (Facial)
maxillary
what type of tastant pass directly through ion channels?
salt and sour
what type of tastant bind and block ion channels?
sour and bitter
what type of tastant opens ion channels?
amino acids (umami)
what type of tastant activate 2ndory messengers to open/close ion channels?
sweet, bitter and umami
the taste of sweet is based upon _____ content?
CHO (simple carbohydrate sugars)
what is the tastant for salt transduction?
Na+
what type of channels involve salt transduction
constantly open amiloride-sensitive
sodium channels
the tastant of sour is detection of what ion?
H+ ion from acidic substances
regarding sour transduction, what are the 2 channels involved?
1) amiloride-sensitive sodium channels (salt) for H+
2) blockage of K+ channels --> depol.
the transduction of sugar tastant results in what sort of channel mechanism?
blockage of K+ channels (unlike sour) by the G-protein coupled receptors via cAMP ----> PKA ------> phosphorylates K+ channel
the transduction of bitternes utilizes what type of channels to cause effect?
K+ channels being blocked
Gprotein coupled IP3 pathways(strong)
Gprotein downregulation of cAMP
bitterness can be describe as the _____ content?
alkyl
what type of tastant receptor respond to poison
bitter
what is the tastant for umami
amino acids (glutamate / aspartate)
what sort of channels are associated with umami taste sensation?
glutamate-gated Na+ / Ca++ channels
What is the effect of MSG on umami taste transduction
causes hypersensitivity to taste
in the pathway of taste sensation, the solitary nuclei project to the _____ and the _______
VPM of thalamus
Parabrachial nucleus
from the VPM in taste sensation the fibers transmit to the (3)
1) gustatory cortex (43) in precentral gyrus
2) parietal operculum
3) insula
from gustatory cortex, parietal operculum and insula the fibers of taste sensation terminate @ the ___
hippocampus
from the Parabrachial nucleus, the fibers of taste project to the ____ and _____
amygdala
hypothalamus
lost of taste
Ageusia
Ageusia can be a result of (2)
1) smoking: due to hyperkeratosis of papillae

2) cranial nerve lesions
altered taste
Dysgeusia
Xerostomia
High Zinc
Amytriplyline (TCA)
Vincristin (antiviral)
may lead to what sensory phenom?
Dysgeusia
Encephalitis
Lesions of temporal/parietal cortex
Psychosis
may be factors in causing what type of sensation?
gustatory hallucinations
Gustatory auras may be a sign or precede what?
seizures