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27 Cards in this Set

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What are the four steps of sensory information being conveyed to the CNS?
Stimulation, Transduction (graded potentials form), Transmission (action potentials carried to CNS), Interpretation.
What are the three types of receptors, based on the type of stimulus they recognize?
Mechanoreeptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors.
What are the two types of receptors, based on where the stimulus they recognize comes from?
Exteroceptors and Interoceptors.
What is the depolarization caused by a stimulus on a sensory receptor?
A receptor potential.
What are the receptors of the skin? Are they exter or interoceptors? What are the two kinds of thermoreceptors that skin has?
Cutaneous receptors. Interoceptors. Cold receptors and warm receptors.
What receptors transmit pain?
Nociceptors.
What are the two types of mechanoreceptors?
Phasic (intermittently activated) and tonic (always activated).
What are Pacinian corpuscles?
Phasic, pressure-sensitive receptors in the subcutaneous tissue that monitor the onset and removal of pressure.
What are proprioceptors?
Receptors that relay information about the relative location and movement of body parts. They're present in muscles, tendons, and joints.
What are baroreceptors and where are they located?
Receptors that detect tension and pressure on blood vessel walls. The carotid sinus and aortic arch.
Describe the taste structures on the tongue.
Taste buds are located within raised papilla, with microvilli of taste cells poking through the taste pore.
How are salty/sour tastes transmitted differently than sweet/bitter tastes?
Salty/sour tastes act through ion channels, while sweet/bitter tastes act through G-proteins.
Describe the lateral line system on a cellular level.
Hair cells line the organism with short projections called stereocilia and a long projection called a kinocilium extending into the cupula.
What sensory structure allows invertebrates to orient themselves according to gravity?
Statocysts.
What sensory structures allow vertebrates to orient themselves according to gravity?
The uticle (horizontal acceleration) and the saccule (vertical acceleration).
What allows angular acceleration to be detected in any direction? What are the utricle, saccule, and these structures collectively called?
The three semicircular canals. The vestibular apparatus.
What structures are in the outer ear?
The ear canal and eardrum/tympanic membrane.
What structures are in the middle ear?
The ossicles, the Eustachian tube, and oval window.
Name all of the ossicles.
The malleus (hammer), the incus (anvil), and the stapes (stirrup).
What structures are in the inner ear?
The cochlea, the vestibular canal above it, the tympanic canal below it, and the round window.
What is the organ of Corti? What do the nerve impulses that leave the organ of Corti get interpreted as?
The apparatus consisting of the basilar membrane, tectorial membrane and hair cells with associated sensory neurons. Sound.
What is the process of determining distance and direction of objects by use of sound?
Echolocation.
What are the parts of the eye?
Sclera (white), iris (color), cornea, pupil, lens, suspensory ligaments (connect to lens), and ciliary muscles (move ligaments).
What are the two verterate potoreceptors, what are their photopigments, and what do they do?
Rods (rhodopsin) and Cones (photopsins). Rods see black and white, cones see color and sharpness.
What causes color blindness?
A defect on the X chromosome that makes the individual lack one or more of the three types of cones.
What is binocular vision?
The ability to perceive three-dimensional images and to sense depths.
What else besides light allows some vertebrates to determine things about their environment?
Heat, electricity, and magnetism.