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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three types of neurons?
Sensory (afferent), Motor (efferent), and Interneurons (association).
In which parts of the nervous system are the different neuron types located?
Motor and Sensory neurons are in the peripheral nervous system, and Interneurons are in the central nervous system (Brain and spinal cord).
What are the motor neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle called? What are the ones that stimulate other things called? What are the two subdivisions of the second group?
Somatic Motor Neurons. Autonomic Motor Neurons. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
What are the parts of a neuron?
The cell body, dendrites, axon, and sometimes myelin sheaths.
What are neuron supporting cells also called? What are the two most important types? What do they produce and where?
Neuroglia. Schwann cells and Oligodendrocytes. Myelin sheaths, Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodrocytes in the CNS.
In the CNS, what is the region with myelinated axons called? Unmyelinated?
White matter. Gray matter.
What are the bundles of axons in the PNS?
What are the gaps between the myelin sheaths called?
Nodes of Ranvier.
A neuron has a resting membrane potential because the inside is more negatively charged than the outside. How is this negative charge achieved?
1) Molecules with negative charge exist in the cell (called fixed anions). 2) The sodium-potassium pump brings in potassium and expels sodium. 3) There are more leak channels that allow K+ out than Na+ in.
What is equilibrium potential?
The point where the electrical and chemical forces of an ion’s diffusion across a membrane balance out.
What are gated ion channels? What are they called when they respond to chemicals binding to them?
They are essentially ion leak channels that have the ability to open and close. Chemical- or Ligand-gated channels.
What is the ability of graded potentials to combine? What amount of depolarization is needed to cause an action potential?
Summation. The threshold.
What is an action potential? What channels does it cause to open?
A nerve impulse. Voltage-gated ion channels.
What is depolarization? What is hyperpolarization?
The movement of polarity above resting potential. The movement of polarity below resting potential.
What are the phases of an action potential?
Rising phase (Na+ rushes in), Falling phase (K+ rushes out), Undershoot (K+ channels open too long).
How can the speed of a nerve impulse’s conduction be increased?
By increasing the axon diameter or giving it myelin sheaths.
What is the process of a nerve impulse jumping from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier on a myelinated axon called?
Saltatory conduction.
What are the interfaces between one neuron’s axon and another’s dendrite called? What is the cell transmitting the impulse called? What is the cell receiving it called?
Synapses. Presynaptic cell. Postsynaptic cell.
What is the space between the cells at a synapse? What are the vesicles in the presynaptic cell? What chemicals do they contain? What structures on the postsynaptic cell bind to these chemicals?
Synaptic cleft. Synaptic vesicles. Neurotransmitters. Receptor proteins.
What is the depolarization occurring on the postsynaptic membrane called?
An excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP).
What sort of synapse does the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh) cross? What enzyme eliminates Ach after the impulse transmission?
A neuromuscular junction (from motor neuron to muscle fiber). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
What is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS?
What do Glycine and GABA do?
They cause hyperpolarization or inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).
What are the biogeneic amines?
Epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, and serotonin.
What does dopamine do? What does serotonin do?
Controls body movements and other functions. Regulates sleep and affects emotional states.
What are neuropeptides? What are neuromodulators? What is substance P?
Polypeptides released by axons. Neuropeptides with long-term effects on the postsynaptic neuron. A neuropeptide released in the CNS due to pain.
What two neuropeptides have effects on the perception of pain?
Enkephalins and endorphins.
What gas has a regulatory effect on the body?
Nitric oxide (NO).
What is the process of multiple presynaptic neurons acting on the same postsynaptic neuron?
Synaptic integration.
What is habituation?
The loss of ability of neurons to respond to a stimulus due to excessive stimulation.
What are the three brain regions?
The hindbrain (rhombencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), and forebrain (prosencephalon).
What are the three parts of the hindbrain? What does the hindbrain generally do?
Cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. It coordinates motor reflexes.
What does the midbrain do?
It carries out reflexes involving the eyes and ears.
What are the two parts of the brain and their subparts?
The diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus) and telencephalon (called the cerebrum in mammals).
What do the thalamus and hypothalamus do?
The thalamus is a relay center between incoming info and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus participates in basic drives and controls the pituitary gland.
How is the cerebrum divided?
It has two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum and has four lobes called the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes.
Where does the majority of the brain’s neural activity occur? What are the three general categories of activity that occur here? Where in this area do higher mental process occur?
In the cerebral cortex on the outer layer of the brain. Motor, sensory, and associative. In the association cortex.
What are the islands of gray matter in the white matter of the cerebrum called? What function do they participate in?
Basal ganglia. They participate in body movement.
What does the limbic system do?
It triggers emotional responses.
What are some differences between short term and long term memory?
Short term memory is stored electrically, while long term memory is stored by neural arrangement.
What are the parts of the spinal cord?
The membranal meninges, the inner gray matter, and outer white matter.
What part of what type of neurons are in the dorsal root, ventral root, and dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord?
The axons of sensory neurons. The axons of motor neurons. The cell bodies of sensory neurons.
What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system? What do they have in common?
The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. They both have ganglions with pre- and post-ganglionic neurons.
What is a difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions?
The sympathetic postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine, while the parasympathetic ones release ACh. They also tend to have opposite effects to each other.