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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two circulatory system types? What do both have?
Open(no vessels, hemolymph) and closed(vessels, lymph and blood separate). A heart.
What are the vessel types?
Arteries(from heart), arterioles(small arteries), veins(to heart), venules(small veins), and capillaries(gas exchange).
What is interstitial fluid? Where does it go?
Fluid from the plasma that passes through capillary walls. Either back into the capillary or lymph vessels.
What are the three functions of the circulatory system in vertebrates?
Transportation, Regulation, and Protection.
What is plasma consist of?
Metabolites, wastes, hormones, ions, and proteins.
Proteins include albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen, which helps blood to clot.
What is plasma without fibrinogen called?
Where do platelets come from? What does fibrin have to do with platelets?
They are pinched off from Megakaryocytes. Fibrin holds platelets together at blood clots.
What are vasoconstriction and vasodilation? What are precapillary sphincters?
Constriction and relaxation of arteriole smooth muscle, regulating blood flow. Valves that can close off capillary beds.
How does blood get back to the heart from the veins?
Through venous pumps and venous valves.
What is the lymphatic system?
The system that gets fluid called lymph back into the circulatory system through lymph vessels and lymph hearts.
Describe the fish heart.
It has four chambers. The first two, sinous venosus and atrium, are for collection. The others, ventricle and conus arteriosus are pumping chambers. The heart beats peristaltically.
Describe amphibian and reptile circulation.
They have a pulmonary and systemic circulation. They have a three chambered heart. Amphibians can also use cutaneous respiration through their skin.
Describe mammalian and bird hearts.
They are four chambered and keep oxygen-rich and poor blood separate. The heartbeat starts in the sinoatrial node, a descendant of the sinus venosus.
What are the different heart valves?
Atrioventricular (triscuspid and biscuspid/mitral), and semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic).
What is the cardiac cycle?
The cycle of rest (diastole) and contraction (systole).
What are the major vessels around the heart?
The pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta, coronary arteries, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava.
What two measurements are made to measure blood pressure?
Systolic and diastolic pressure.
How is heart contraction stimulated?
Depolarization of the sinoatrial node, followed by the atrioventricular node, the atrioventricular bundle/bundle of His, to Purkinje fibers.
How is the depolarization of the heart measured and recorded from the surface of the body?
With an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
What do baroreceptors do?
Detect changes in arterial blood pressure.
What hormones regulate blood volume? What do they do?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-retain more water, Aldosterone-retain Na+, Atrial Natriuretic Hormone-eliminate Na+ and water, and Nitric Oxide-dilate vessels.
What are some cardiovascular diseases?
Angina pectoris (low blood supply to heart), Stroke (loss of blood to brain), Atherosclerosis (plaque accumulation), Arteriosclerosis (artery hardening).
What is Fick's Law of Diffusion?
R=DA(deltaP/d). R=diffusion rate. D=constant. A=area. deltaP=concentration difference. d=distance.
How do animals maximize their respiration rates?
Creating a water current with cilia, increase respiration surfaces' area and decrease their thickness.
How many mm Hg are in an atmosphere? What is partial pressure?
760. The pressure contribute by a single gas in a mixture.
What are external gills? What is an operculum? What is ram ventilation?
Gills not enclosed in body structures. A cover placed over internal gills. Swimming constantly with the mouth open to force water over the gills.
What are gill arches? What is countercurrent flow?
The collections of gill filaments in a fish. The flow of water and blood in opposite directions in gills.
Why were gills replaced when terrestrial animals evolved?
Air is less buoyant than water and water can diffuse into air.
What are the types of terrestrial respiratory organs? What is a uniform pool?
Tracheae and lungs. A system of respiration present in all terrestrial vertebrates except birds where air is in contact with the gas-exchange surface.
Contrast amphibian and reptile respiration.
Amphibians respire by using positive pressure, reptiles with negative.
Describe the mammalian air path.
Air comes into the larynx, the trachea, branches into bronchi, which branche into bronchioles, which end in alveoli.
Describe avian respiration.
Respiration has two phases, inspiration and expiration. Air is pushed in one direction through parabronchi during expiration. Blood flows in a cross-current flow.
What are the pleural membranes around the lung?
The visceral pleural membrane, the parietal pleural membrane, and the pleural cavity between them.
What is tidal volume? What is vital capacity?
The volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a breath. The maximum amount of air that can be expired.
What is hypoventilating? What is hyperventilating?
Not breathing enough to remove CO2. Removing too much CO2 by breathing too rapidly.
What structures regulate breathing?
The aortic and carotid bodies (peripheral chemoreceptors) and the central chemoreceptors in the brain.
What is hemoglobin? What is oxyhemoglobin? What is doxyhemoglobin?
A four chain protein with four heme groups. Hemoglobin with oxygen bound to the heme groups. Hemoglobin without oxygen.
How is CO2 carried in the bloodstream?
It is dissolved in plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or converted by erythrocytes into carbonic acid.
How does NO in the blood stream affect the circulatory system?
It expands blood vessels and increases blood flow.
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.