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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores?
Herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat animals, omnivores eat both.
What are the sections of the gastrointestinal tract?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intstine, large intestine, cloaca(or rectum and anus in mammals).
What are ruminants?
Animals with multichamber stomachs.
What is the cecum?
A pouch at the beginning of the large intestine which digests cellulose with bacterial aid.
What are the accessory digestive organs?
Liver(secretes bile), gallbladder(stores bile), and pancreas (secretes pancreatic juice).
What are the types of teeth of vertebrates? What fluid in the mouth also helps break down food?
Incisors(biting), cuspids("canines", tearing), premolars, and molars. Saliva.
What is a ring of smooth muscle that acts as a valve called?
A sphincter.
Are proteins fully digested in the stomach? What do the stomach parietal cells secrete? Chief cells? What is the stomach's pH?
No. HCl and intinsic factor. Pepsinogen. 2.
What is the food mixture produced by the stomach called?
What are holes in the stomach called? What bacteria can cause them?
Gastric ulcers. Helicobacter pylori.
What substances can the stomach absorb?
Some water, aspirin, and alcohol.
What are the sections of the smal intestine? What covers the walls of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Villi covered in microvilli(forms the brush border).
What does the pancreas release?
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, and lipase. They are released as inactive zymogens. It also releases bicarbonate as a pH stabilizer.
The pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland. Where are the hormones of the pancreased produced and what are the two most important ones?
Islets of Langerhans. Insulin and glucagon.
What does the liver secrete?
Where are these secretions stored?
Bile pigments(waste, old red blood cells) and bile salts(emulsifiers). The gallbladder.
How is fat absorption different than other nutrients?
It is absorbed into the lymphatic system before entering the blood.
What does the large intestine do?
It concentrates waste material into feces. It absorbs some water but does NOT digest.
Where do the feces go from the large intestine?
Into the rectum and out the anus. Two sphincters block the way, one voluntary, one not.
What is the common chamber for excretion and the end of digestion in most non-mammals?
The cloaca.
What are ruminants? What are the chambers? What do ruminants do?
Animals that have divided stomachs. Rumen, reticulum omasum, and abomasum. The regurgitate and rechew food.
What is coprophagy?
The practice of eating feces used by some non-ruminants to effectively digest cellulose.
How do mammals get vitamin K?
They have to rely on intestinal bacteria.
What hormone stimulates release of HCl and pepsin in the stomach?
What are the dudenal hormones that regulate passage of chyme collectively called? What are they? What do they do?
Enterogastrones. Cholecystokinin(stimulates pancreas and gallbaldder), secretin(stimulate pancreas for bicarbonate), gastric inhibitory peptide. All inhibit gastric motility and juic secretions.
What does the liver do from a regulatory standpoint?
It filters the blood, regulates the level of compounds in the blood, and produces proteins in blood plasma.
Where is insulin created? What does it do?
Beta cells of the pancreas. It stimulates glucose storage as glycogen.
Where is glucagon created? What does it do?
Alpha cells of the pancreas. It stimulates glycogenolysis(formation of glucose from glycogen).
What is gluconeogenesis?
Formation of glucose from molecules other than glycogen.
What is the basal metabolic rate?
The minimum amount of energy needed to keep an organism alive.
What is obesity?
The condition of being 20% higher than average body weight.
What is the ob gene? Where is it expressed? What is the product supposed to do?
A gene that prevents proper production of leptin. Fat cells. Be a satiety factor (decrease appetite).
Is obesity generally caused by a lack of leptin or reduced sensitivity to leptin?
Reduced sesitivity to leptin.
What are essential nutrients?
Nutrients the body cannot itself produce. They include vitamins, essential amino acids (nine for humans), unsaturated fatty acids, and essential minerals.
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.