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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the minimum requirement for being classified as a mollusk?
A coelom.
What basic body parts do mollusks have?
A visceral mass, foot, mantle, gills, and sometimes a head.
Describe the mollucks shell.
It has a horny outher layer, a crystalline calcium carbonate middle layer, and a pearly inner layer.
What is a bivalve mollusk?
A mollusk with two shells. (i.e. clams or oysters)
What is the radula?
A rasping, tongulike feeding organ present in all mollusks except for bivalves.
What do mollusks use to get rid of nitrogenous wastes? Descirbe them.
Nephridia. They contain a funnel-like nephrostome that leads to a bladder which leads to an excretory pore.
What are the free-swimming larvae of mollusks called? What stage follows this larva stage?
Trochophores. The veliger stage (has beginnings of foot, shell, and mantle).
How many calcareous plates are in the shell of polyplacophoras (chitons)?
What is torsion? What is coiling?
The process of the mantle cavity and anus moving to the front of gastropods. The spiral-winding of the gastropod shell.
How are cephalopods so much different from other mollusks?
They have highly developed nervous systems, close circulatory systems, high intelligence, no external shell, chromatophores, and a means of jet propulsion
What is the minimum requirement for being classified as an annelid?
What are the three principal features of annelids?
Repeated segments with septa inbetween, specialized segments, and connections between the segments.
What are the sections of the annelid digestive track?
The pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine.
What are setae?
Bristles of chitin that help anchor worms during locomotion.
What are the three annelid classes?
Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, and Hirudinea.
What is a clitellum?
An organ both leeches and oligochaetes have which secretes a cocoon specialized to receive eggs.
What are parapodia?
Paired, fleshy, paddlelike flaps on polychaetes used for swimming, burrowing, or crawling.
What is a lophophore? What three phylum have them?
A circular or U-shaped ridge around the mouth with tentacles. It is a surface for gas exchange and food-collection. Phoronida, Ectoprocta, and Brachiopoda.
What two new innovation arose as arthropods developed from annelids? How successful have arthropods been?
Jointed appendages and exoskeletons. They are the most successful of all animals.
Do more advanced arthropods have more or fewer jointed appendages?
What is the arthropod exoskeleton made of?
Chitin (similar to cellulose) and protein. Crustaceans may also add calcium salts.
What are tagmata? What is the process of them being formed? What is a cephalothorax?
Groups of body segments fused together. Tagmatatization. A tagma of an arthropod's head with its thorax.
Arthropods go through ecdysis. What does ecdysis mean?
What is a compound eye like? What are simple eyes also known as?
A compound eye is composed of many units called ommatidia, each with a lens, some retinular cells, and a light-sensitive rhabdom. Ocelli.
What is the arthropod nervous system like?
There is a double chain of segmented ganglia down the ventral surface, and three fused pairs of dorsal ganglia making the brain. Many body functions can be carried out without the brain.
What is the arthropod respiratory system like?
Air passes through spiracle, holes in the exoskelton, into the trachea which branches into small tracheoles.
What are Malpighian tubules?
An excretory organ in arthropods which converts wastes into uric acid or guanine for excretion.
Describe crustaceans.
They have two pairs of antennae, three types of chewing appendages, various numbers of leg pairs, mandibles, and a nauplius larva stage.
What are swimmerets, uropods, and telsons?
Swimmerets are appendages used for reproduction and swimming. Uropods are paddles at the end of the abdomen, and telsons are tail spines.
What are chelicerae?
Anterior appendages used by arachnids as pincers or fangs.
What are pedipalps?
Appendages on arachnids resembling legs, but not used for locomotion. Can be copulatory organs or pincers.
What are book lungs?
A respiratory organ of arachnids that is a series of leaflike plates within a chamber.
Are centipedes herbivores or carnivores? Millipedes?
Carnivores. Mostly herbivores.
Describe insects.
They have three body sections (head, thorax, abdomen), three leg pairs, and one pair of antennae.
What is the fat body?
It is a group of cells in the insect that stores food and functions somewhat like a liver.
How do insects sense things about their environment and communicate with other insects?
Sensory hairs sense mechanical and chemical stimulations. Tympanums sense sounds. Pheromones are used to communicate.
What is metamorphosis? What is the difference between simple and complete metamorphosis?
Change in life stages. Simple meta involves just an increase in size. Complete meta has different looking stages like the larvae, the pupa/chrysalis, and adult.
What new evolutionary developments do echinoderms have?
Deuterostome development, endoskeletons, and a water-vascular system.
What is strange about echinoderm symmetry?
They are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae, but radially symmetrical as adults. This is called secondary radial symmetry.
What is the echinoderm nervous system like?
It has a central nerve ring with branches.
Describe the water vascular system.
It has five radial canals, a madreporite to let water in, and tube feet with ampullas at the end of them.
What are papulae?
Fingerlike extensions of the coelom in echinoderms that aid in respiration and waste removal.
What are the six living phyla of echinoderms?
Crinoidea, asteroidea, ophiuroidea, echinoidea, holothuroidea, and concentricycloidea.
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.