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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a community? What is an assemblage?
The different species that occur at a particular location. A subset of a community containing species that are likely to interact with each other.
What are the two views on the functioning of communities? Which scientists started them? What do they state? Which is favored most today?
Individualistic (Gleason)- communities are just a collection of individual species. Holistic (Clements)- communities are integrated nets of species. Individualistic concept.
What is an organism's niche? What is a fundamental niche? What is a realized niche?
The sum total of ways a species utilizes resources. The entire niche that a species could possibly occupies. The actual niche a species occupies.
What is the principle of competitive exclusion? Who came up with it?
If two species are competing for a limited resource, the one that uses it most efficiently will eliminate the other locally. Gause.
What are sympatric species?
Similar species of organisms that partition resources by utilizing different areas or food sources to avoid competition.
What is character displacement?
The change in behavior or morphology where sympatric species are present together, but not when they are separate.
What is predation?
The consuming of one organism by another.
What are secondary chemical compounds?
Chemicals produced by plants that are not products of major metabolic pathways and that deter herbivores.
What is coevolution?
The evolution of attributes to counter the attributes that evolve in another species in the community.
What is warning coloration? What is cryptic coloration?
Bright coloration used by toxin producing animals to advertise their toxicity. Camouflaged coloration used by animals without toxins to hide from predators.
What is mimicry and what are its two types?
The evolution of coloration similar to a species that exhibits warning coloration. Batesian (mimic is nontoxic) and Mullerian (both are toxic).
What is symbiosis? What are its three types?
Coevolution in which organisms interact in unique relationships. Commensalism (one species benefits, other unaffected), Mutualism (both benefit), and Parasitism (one species benefits, other harmed).
What are the types of parasites?
Ectoparasites- parasites that feed on the outside of the organism, include Parasitoids (lay eggs on living host). Endoparasites- parasites that feed on the organism from within the organism.
How do predation and parasitism affect competition?
They can reduce or counter it.
What are indirect effects?
Species that have an effect on one another by a chain of direct effects on intermediate species.
What are keystone species?
Species that have particularly strong effects on the composition of communities. They are typically predators.
What is succession?
The tendency of a community to become more and more complex with time.
What is primary succession and secondary succession?
Succession that occurs on barren, life-less substrate. Succession that occurs on a cleared area that already has soil.
Define oligotrophic. Define eutrophic.
Poor in nutrients. Rich in nutrients.
What was Clements' idea of a climax community? Why is it currently not held in high regard?
Eventually, an area's community will conform to that of its region. 1. Climate changes, 2. Succession is slow, 3. Humans affect vegetation.
What are the three concepts that are important to succession?
Tolerance (species can tolerate current conditions), Facilitation (species induce change which favors other species), Inhibition (species inhibit the species that facilitated them).
What are the two theories about the stability of communities?
Equilibrium (communities are stable and resist change) and Nonequilibrium (communities are unstable and continuously change).