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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are pollinators?
Organisms that are attracted by flowers to spread pollen between flowers of the same species.
What are the four whorls in flowers? What are they made up of? What is a flower called when it has all four whorls? When it doesn't?
Calyx (sepals), Corolla (petals), Androecium (stamens), Gynoecium (carpels). Complete. Incomplete.
Are stamens male or female? What are their parts?
Male. Filament (stalk) and Anther (contains four microsporangia).
Are carpels male or female? What are their parts?
Female. Style (stalk), Stigma (sticky top), and Ovary (contains ovules which develop into seeds).
What two evolutionary trends led to the current diversity in flowering plants?
1. Separate floral parts have been fusing. 2. Floral parts have been lost or reduced.
Through evolution, have flowers been moving from bilateral symmetry to radial symmetry or the other way around?
From radial symmetry to bilateral.
What is the male gametophyte in angiosperms? The female gametophyte?
The pollen grain. The embryo sac.
How are angiosperm reproductive structures different from animal reproductive structures?
In angiosperms, the reproductive structures are not permanent parts of the plant and the male and female parts can occur together in the same flower.
What cells do pollen grains ultimately develop from?
Microspore mother cells.
What are the different cells and nuclei in the embryo sac?
Egg cell (near opening), Synergids (surround egg), Antipodals (opposite of opening), and Polar Nuclei (in center).
What is pollination? What is self-pollination?
The process of pollen being placed on the stigma. Pollen from a flower being placed on the same flower's stigma.
What are some different methods of pollination?
Wind, insects, birds, or other animals.
Self-pollination prevents outcrossing, so how is self-pollination advantageous?
Less energy needs to be expended attracting pollinators and self-pollination creates more uniform offspring that might be better adapted to survival in the environment.
What does it mean for a plant to be dioecious? Monoecious? Dichogamous?
Producing only male or female flowers. Producing both male and female flowers. Producing flowers with both male and female parts that mature at different times.
What is self-incompatibility? What locus on the genome controls it?
The process of the stigma and pollen grains of a flower recognizing each other and halting pollen tube growth. The S Locus.
What are the different types of self-incompatibility?
Gametophytic- stigma checks pollen for alleles the stigma has, pollen tube stops before it hits embryo sac.
Sporophytic- stigma checks pollen for alleles the anther cells have, pollen tube never forms.
What are the results of double fertilization?
1. The egg is fertilized. 2. The endosperm that nourishes the embryo is formed.
What is the pollen tube?
The tube that germinates from a pollen grain once it lands on a suitable stamen that allows a path for sperm nuclei to reach the embryo sac.
When do plants tend to use asexual reproduction? What are the three ways asexual reproduction can occur in plants?
When they live in harsh environments that are unlikely to support variability. Vegetative reproduction (plant parts form plants), apomixis (embryo formed mitotically), and tissue culture (a few cells with hormone treatment).
What are the different structures that can be used in vegetative reproduction?
Runners, Rhizomes, Suckers (sprouts), and Adventitious Plantlets.
What are the three types of plants, in terms of lifespan?
Annuals (live one year), Biennials (live a couple years), and Perennials (live a long time).
What is senescence?
The hormonal reallocation of nutrients by developing flowers or embryos that cause the plant to die.
What are the two types of perennial plants?
Deciduous (leaves fall off at a particular time) or Evergreen (leaves fall off whenever, and not all at once).
What is abscission? How does it occur?
The process through which leaves or petals are shed. A water-proof protective layer and a weak gelantinous separation layer develop in an abscission zone.