Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe virus structure.
A protein sheath called a capsid surrounds the nucleic acid core. Many animal viruses also have a envelope around the capsid with proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins in it. The general shape is usually either helical or isometric.
What is a virus's host range?
The types of cells that a virus can replicate itself in.
What is the only structural pattern currently known in isometric viruses?
The icosahedron (20 trianglular facets).
What are bacterophages?
Viruses that infect bacteria.
What is the lytic cycle? What type of viruses induce the lytic cycle?
The cycle of a virus reproduces within the cell and eventually causes it to lyse. Virulent viruses.
What is the lysogenic cycle? What type of viruses induce the lysogenic cycle?
The integration of the virus's DNA (prophage) into the host's DNA through lysogeny. Lysogenic viruses and temperate viruses.
What is the alteration of a cell's genome by the introduction of foreign DNA called? What is it called when when the foreign DNA comes from a bacteriophage?
Transformation. Phage conversion.
What is a retrovirus? What is an example of a retrovirus?
A virus that introduces RNA which is transcribed within the cell into DNA by reverse transcriptase. HIV.
What is the series of events in an HIV infection?
Attachment to CD4+ cells. Entry into Macrophages by attaching to CCR5. Replication by budding. Entry into T Cells, crippling the immune system.
What are some of the ways HIV is being treated, or is hoped to be treated with?
AZT and other nucleoside analogs, combination therapy, vaccine therapy (HIV with defect in nef gene), and chemokines (block CCR5 and CXCR4).
What are the three types of influenza?
Type A (humans, mammals, and birds, cause serious cases), Type B, and Type C (both are restricted to humans and are rarely serious).
What two proteins make up the protein spikes on the flu virus and what do they do?
Hemaglutinin (H, aid in gaining acess to cell interior) and Neuraminidase (N, help virus break free from host after replication).
What are emerging viruses?
Viruses that originate in one organism and then expand their host range to include another organism.
What is hantavirus?
A single stranded RNA virus associated with rodents.
Ebola virus is an emerging virus. What was its original host?
Unknown.
Describe the virus that causes SARS.
It is an 29,751 nucleotide RNA coronavirus with a steady mutation rate. It probably originated in civets.
What are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs)? Who first proposed that they were caused by proteins? What are these proteins called and who gave them this name?
Diseases that cause neurons in the brain to die and leave cavities. Alper and Griffith. Prions. Prusiner.