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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are genera?
The original groups organisms were classified into (i.e. Cats, dogs, horses, oaks).
What is a species? How is it referred to in a polynomial system? A binomial system?
A particular kind of organism. A series of descriptive terms are added to the genus. The species name is added after the genus.
What is Taxonomy? What is a taxon?
The science of classifying living things. A group of organisms at any particual level in the classification system.
What is the taxon hierarchy (from most specific to most general)?
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, and Domain.
What is systematics? Why is a phylogeny?
The reconstruction and study of evolutionary relationships. An evolutionary tree used to show relationships between organisms.
What is oscillating selection? What is convergent evolution?
The evolution of an organism in one direction, but then evolving back in the other direction. Two independent organisms evolving to appear more similar.
What are ancestral similarities? Derived similarities? What is the systematics method that uses these similarities? Which kind does it consider most informative?
Traits that both a group and its ancestors share. Traits that a group developed independent of its ancestors. Cladistics. Derived traits.
What is a clade? What is a synapomorphy? What is a cladogram?
A group of species that share derived traits. A derived trait that a clade's members share. A tree that shows evolutionary relationships between clades.
What is outgroup comparison? What is an outgroup?
A method of determining whether a trait is ancestral or derived. An organism used as a reference point for outgroup comparison.
What are plesiomorphies? Symplesiomorphies?
Ancestral traits. Shared ancestral traits.
What are some difficulties in using derived traits for classification? What do taxonimists do when they encounter conflicts?
Derived traits can evolve independently and converge (homoplasies) or can be lost. They use the principle of parsimony (make as few assumptions as possible).
What is the molecular clock and why is it controversial?
It is a method of determining when evolution occurs based on a molecule that evolves at a constant rate. It is controversial because it doesn't seem to always hold true.
What are monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups?
Taxonomic groups that include the most recent ancestor and all descendants, taxonomic groups that include the most recent ancestor but not all descendants, and taxonomic groups that don't include the most recent ancestor.
What are homologous structures? Analagous structures?
Structures with different functions but a common origin. Structures with similar functions but different origins.
What are the six kingodms?
Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaebacteria, and Bacteria.
What are the three domains?
Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria.
What are the three types of Archaebacteria?
Methanogens, Extremophiles (heat/salt/pH/pressure tolerant), and Nonextreme Archaebacteria.
Are Archaebacteria more related to Bacteria or Eukarya?
What is an important function of Bacteria?
They extract nitrogen from the air to be used by organisms, and play key roles in cycling carbon and sulfur.
How is it believed mitochondrian and chloroplasts entered eukaryotes?
What are the key characteristics of eukaryotes?
Compartmentalization, Multicellularity (in many), and Sexuality.
What is syngamy? What is meiosis?
The union of male and female gametes. Division of cells to form gametes.
What are viruses?
Parasitic chemicals that contain DNA or RNA, but are not considered alive because they cannot reproduce by themselves.
Did chordates inherit segmentation from annelids and arthropods or develop it independently?
They developed it independently.
Some scientists believe that insecta should be considered a sister group to what?