Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define the Heart
It's a muscular pump, it's job is to pump blood through all of the blood vessels.
What is another word for the blood vessels?
Vascular System
What covers the heart?
The Pericardium.
What is the pericardium specifically?
It's a fibrous sac/membrane, inside there is a small amount of fluid for lubrication.
About how big is one's heart?
The size of that person's fist.
List the 4 hollow chambers within the heart.
1. Right Atrium, 2. Left Atrium, 3. Right Ventricle, 4. Left Ventricle.
Which chambers are more superior?
The Atria.
Which are inferior?
The Ventricles
What major artey is in the interventicular groove?
Interventricular Artery (one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart).
The Left Atrioventricular Groove separates what?
The left atrium from the left ventricle.
What artery does the Atriventricular Groove contain?
The Left Coronary Artery
The right atriventricular groove separates what?
The right atrium and the right ventricle. Contains the right coronary artery.
The apex of the heart points to which side of the body?
Left
If squeezed, which side of the heart will be denser with muscle?
Left
What does the average adult heart beat per minute?
70-80 bpm
What are the 2 major blood vessel types?
Arteries and veins
Define artery
A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
List the two major arteries
Aorta and Pulmonary Arteries (2)
The aorta, or the biggest artery, does what?
Carries blood out of the left ventricle, blood goes to all parts of the body.
Does blood in the aorta have high or low levels of oxygen?
High
What do the pulmonary arteries do?
They come out of the right ventricle carrying blood, the blood then goes to the lungs to get oxygen.
Define Veins
blood vessels that carries blood to the heart.
What are the 2 major veins?
Pulmonary Veins (4) and Vena Cava.
What to the pulmonary veins do?
2 come from each lung and the go into the left atrium, the blood has high levels of oxygen.
The vena cava does what?
Carries blood from all parts of the body to the right atrium.
What are the 2 parts of the vena cava?
Inferior Vena Cava and Superior Vena Cava.
The inferior vena cava does what?
It brings blood to the heart from the lower part of the body.
The superior vena cava does what?
It brings blood to the heart from the upper body.
Define the Heart
It's a muscular pump, it's job is to pump blood through all of the blood vessels.
What is another word for the blood vessels?
Vascular System
What covers the heart?
The Pericardium.
What is the pericardium specifically?
It's a fibrous sac/membrane, inside there is a small amount of fluid for lubrication.
About how big is one's heart?
The size of that person's fist.
List the 4 hollow chambers within the heart.
1. Right Atrium, 2. Left Atrium, 3. Right Ventricle, 4. Left Ventricle.
Which chambers are more superior?
The Atria.
Which are inferior?
The Ventricles
What major artey is in the interventicular groove?
Interventricular Artery (one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart).
The Left Atrioventricular Groove separates what?
The left atrium from the left ventricle.
What artery does the Atriventricular Groove contain?
The Left Coronary Artery
The right atriventricular groove separates what?
The right atrium and the right ventricle. Contains the right coronary artery.
The apex of the heart points to which side of the body?
Left
If squeezed, which side of the heart will be denser with muscle?
Left
What does the average adult heart beat per minute?
70-80 bpm
List the 2 separate but simultaneous circulations.
Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation.
Pulmonary goes to what, systemic goes to what?
Lungs, systems (digestive, etc.)
The pulmonary circulation goes to what?
Goes from the right ventricle out the pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary arteries, to the lungs to get oxygen, then back to the heart through the pulmonary veins into the atrium.
The systemic circulation goes to what?
It starts in the left ventricle, out the aorta, to all parts of the body, drops off oxygen then goes back to the heart though the vena cava(s) into the right atrium.
Do the atria contract at the same time?
Yes, they push blood into the ventricles and both the ventricles contract at the same time.
What is the route of circulation? (without vavles)
Right Atrium->Right Ventricle-> Pulmonary Arteries->Lungs(to get oxygen)->pulmonary veins->Left Atrium-> Left Ventricle->aorta->body->drops off oxygen to cells->vena cava(s)->start back at Right Atrium, it's a continuous movement.
Average blood volumes of 5 Liters would circulate through the body how fast?
60 Seconds
List the 4 valves in the heart.
The 2 atrioventricular valves, the pulmonary artery vavle, and the aortic valve.
What is the function of the atrioventricular valves?
To keep blood from flowing backwards.
The atrioventricular valves consist of what?
Thin flaps od tissue that dangle down into the ventricles.
The flaps that dangle down into the ventricles (from the atrioventricular valves) are also known as what?
Cusps
What are chordae tendinae?
Little strings attached to the bottom of cusps, they anchor the cusps to little muscles that stick out from the inside of the ventricle.
The little bits of muscles that chordae tendinae attach to are called what?
Papillary Muscle
The Left Atrioventricular Valve has how many cusps and is also known as what?
It has 2 cusps and is also known as the bicuspid valve or the Mitral Valve.
The right atrioventriclar valve has how many cusps and is also referred to as what?
It has 3 cusps and is also called the tricuspid valve.
Explain how the valves work.
Atria contracts, the force opens the valves so blood can go down and fill the ventricles, then the ventricles contract, push blood out into the arteries, and the valves close again to stop the flow of blood to come bacj into the atria.
The heart beat that we hear is what?
The valves in the heart closing.
The pulmonary artery valve is located where?
At the beginning of the pulmonary artery.
The aortic valve is found where?
At the beginning of the aorta.
Both the aortic valve and pulmonary artery valves have how many cusps? What are they referred to as?
They each have 3 cusps and are often called Semilunarvalves.
Define Systole
Ventricular Contraction- the ventricles pushing blood out of the arteries.
Define Diastole
Ventricular Relaxation- when the ventricles are filling up with blood from the atria.
During systole are the Atrioventricular valves open or closed?
Closed so that blood won't come back into the atria.
During systole are the Artery Valves open or closed?
Open, we want blood to go out of the arteries.
During diastole are the Atrioventricular valves open or closed?
Open because the ventricles need to fill up with blood from the atria.
During diastole are the artery valves open or closed?
Closed, so that the blood won't come back down from the arteries to the ventricles.
List the route of circulation, including the valves.
Right atrium->Tricuspid->Right Ventricle->Pulmonary Artery Valve->pulmonary arteries-> lungs to get oxygen->pulmonary veins->Left Atrium->Bicuspid->Left Ventricle->Aortic Valve->Body (drops off oxygen)->Vena Cava->Back to Right Atrium to go through the cycle again.
The endocardium is located where and is made of what kinda of cells?
It is the inside lining of the heart, it's simple squamous epithelium cells.
The epicardium is what?
The outside layer that is right on the heart, it's a thin membrane.
The outside covering over the heart, or the sac the heart is in is called what?
The pericardium.
Heart muscles are referred to as what?
Myocardium.
List the 4 distinctive characteristics that myocardiums have.
1) They're short cells, 2)They only have 1 nucleus in the middle of the cell, 3)they have brances, 4)they have intercalated discs.
What's an intercalated disc?
The special junctions between myocardiums.
Do intercalated discs have high or low resistance to Action Potentaials?
Low, if an Actional Potential starts in one cell it will spread rapidly to all of the other cells.