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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
% of deaths caused by tobacco use in US
18.10%
% caused by pollutants/toxins
2.20%
Some neuro effects caused by Mercury
cerebral palsy, MR/DD, dieequil, ataxia, psych disturb
which type of fish are high in mercury and should not be eaten more than 6 oz a month
Bass, Brown trout, White canned tuna, shark and swordfish
most potent stimulator of natural origin
cocaine
problem c mercury's effects on neuronal and glial cells
low levels of glutathione, shown in Autistic pts
this form of cocaine is preferred because it is absorbed immediately into the blood via lungs and reaches brain in 5 sec
freebase
difference in freebase cocaine and regular cocaine
Cl is removed in freebase
what do you add to make crack cocaine
use of baking soda instead of ammonia b/c of low toxicity and stench
cocaine is a potent blocker of ___
dopamine transporter
cocaine less poteny blocker of
NE & Serotonin
where does cocaine go once it enters the body
reward areas- ventral tegmantal area, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex
what is it effects on the uptake sites
it binds and leaves a higher conc of dopamine in synaptic cleft
snorted form of cocaine
Cocaine HCl, also IV or orally
pure base form using water, ether and heat
freebase
cocaine c alcohol
Cocaethylene- really bad
mech of cocaine
blocks K and Na- acts as a local anestetic & non selective of NE, Dopamine, and Serotonin
Side effects of Cocaine
enamel and tooth decay, increase in body temp
antidote for cocaine use
None
was the Cocaine in Coca-Cola in its early days
yes
chemical that has stimulant properties that was a problem in Hawaii which started in the 1980's
Methamphetamine
Meth effects
Euphoria, sexual confidence, alertness, sexual enhancement
psych effects of crystal meth
higher doses- hypomania, grandiosity, Extreme insomnia, irritability, Frank psychosis
short term effects of Meth
tachycardia, HTN, Tachypnea, hyperthermia
How is Meth metabolized and which group is deficient here
CYP 2D6, 3-10% of white population
What are Meth Amphet neurotoxic effects
most devastating and are potentially permanent
what causes this Neurotoxicity
decrease in DAT levels reflecting irreverible dopamine terminal damage are thought to may cause this
Area where MA targets dopamine
orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and amygdala
MA role in HIV- drug resistance and forget to take HIV meds
Crystal Meth W/D
Terrible Tuesday, depression, irratitability, suicidal ideation, and chronic depression c long term use-maybe even 2-5 yrs after abstinence
Neurotransmitter functions
Dopamine
reward and addiction pathway
Serotonin
mood, sleep, sex, appetite
Norepinephrine
increases BP, gives energy
NT and club drugs
Crystal Meth
Dopamine & NE
Ecstacy
Dopamine, Serotinin
Cocaine
Dopamine, NE, Serotonin
targets of reward pathway by addictive drugs
nucleus accumbens
effects of MA on diff parts of brain
frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum
crystal depletes dopamine in ___ causing Parkinsons dx risk
nigro-striatal tract
MA's long term psyche effects
mimic schizo but last for several days or weeks, also showed that addicts had ADD children
Treatment of the Psychosis caused by MA
Neuroleptics-Zyprexa, Risperdal
these receptors may reduce drug cravings
D1
receptors may increase drug cravings
D2
Deaths caused by Crystal Meth and HIV meds
3Tc, Saquinavir, and Ritonavir
2 reported with Ecstacy and__
Ritonavir
Tx of Addiction- treating substance induced psychiatric disorders
Welbutrin-Bupropion, Celexa, Ambien, depakote for mood stabilizer
tx for psychosis/anxiety
zyprexa and risperdal
Amphetamines
disadvantages are mult daily doses and high abuse potential
Dextroamphetamine
longer acting, easy to titrate
Mixed Amphetamine Salts
safer lot less headaches, GI problems, and better quality sleep
Methylphenidate
% of ADHD patients that cannot tolerate the meds
30-40%
1st line antidepressant agent for ADD/ADHD
Straterra, has no abuse potential but sedation is possible
stimulates release of NE
benzphetamine, phendometrazine, phenteremine, diethylpropion
inh NE and serotonin reuptake-
sibutramine
That is MDMA
Hallucinogen- thought to be truth serum used by US Army
Effects of MDMA
onset 30 min, effects last 3-4 hrs-enhancement of sight, sound and touch-very pleasant
Side effects of MDMA
increases BP & HR, Psychotic episodes, chills, sweating, insomnia, severe anxiety, decresed appetite
Ecstacy MDMA Intox
sensual not sexual, euphoria
MDMA elicits large increases in
Serotonin
MDMA effects has been seen to effect as late as
7 yrs
effects of cannaboids
early- euphoria, oncontrollable laughter, increased appetite, altered sense of time- late- difficulty conc and decreased memory
mech of cannaboids
CB1 and CB2
Uses of cannaboids
Cancer-amelioration of N and V, AIDS- appetite stimulant, & Chronic Pain
****** 3 hallucinogens c cross tolerance
LSD, Mescaline, & Psilocybin
Hallucinogen effects
enhanced sensations from all sensory inputs
Mech of Halluc
CNS Serotoinin agonism & CNS serotonin rec antagonisn
Tx of Hallucinogen
talk down patient, withdrawal not common, BARBs and BZDs for acute psychotic episodes
which abuser can you turn your back on LSD or PCP
LSD
most dangerous hallucinogen-psychomimetic
PCP-Phencyclidine
mech of PCP
NMDA antagonist
hyperreflexia, hypersalivation, nystagmus, catatonic poisoning fatal seizures-
diagnostic physiological features of PCP
Tx for PCP
BZD-seizures haloperidol for chronic psychotic episodes