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31 Cards in this Set

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cerebellar atrophy - occurs in chronic alcoholism. recognized by the space btw folia
1. Look at folia. What is abnormal about them. Complication of alcoholism
internal capsule or basal ganglia. HTN.
2. What was a predisposing factor for this catastrophe?
spina bifida xray or pathologic; myelomeningocele - contains spinal cord, meninges, & skin
7. List the types of tissue that may be included in this abnormality.
hemorrhagic infarct. possible fat emboli, but do not form lower margin, would be whole area involved.
3. The final diagnosis is up for grabs. Your opinion is just as good mine.
subdural hematoma. What caused hemorrhage: rupture of bridging veins.
4. What is the source of bleeding in this type of injury?
abnormality mammilary bodies hemorrhagic. brown areas red in fresh state resembling hemorrhage. necrosis mammilary bodies in Wernicke's encephalopathy. result thiamine deficiency or chronic alcoholism.
A: typical change in wernicke encephalopathy. hemorrhagic necrosis of mammillary bodies.
8. What clinical syndrome is typified by this type of abnormality?
extensive injury of soft tissue and perhaps, one or two broken limbs
Fat emboli. Involved in accident, with extensive soft tissue injury.
5. May not see the changes clearly, but this type of abnormality consists of numerous petechial hemorrhages which follow extensive injury of soft tissue and perhaps, one or two broken limbs
hemorrhagic infarct. cause of infarct: embolus. enlarged ventricle bc of swelling.
embolus - hemorrhagic; thrombus - ischemic infarct
6. Thrombus or embolus as cause of these changes?
subdural hemorrhage.
9. What is the source of bleeding is this type of hemorrhage?
Intracranial hemorrhage due to hypertension. Right in basal ganglia.
10. Characteristic area of hemorrhage in a patient with ____________.
Duret hemorrhage. finding in the pons. Associated w/transtentorial herniation. Increased ICP
11. This type of hemorrhage is associated with what phenomenon that occurs in the cranial cavity?
AVM. involves brain parenychma. age group effects?
12. What vascular abnormality is this?
Lacunar infarct. Caused by hypertension. Liquefaction necrosis in chronic condition.
13. This is an example of a _______ infarct.
Tonsillar herniation. Inc ICP.
14. This type of change involves the cerebellar tonsils w
when what change occurs in the cranial cavity for an extended period of time?
countrecoup injury. person falling backwards and hitting base of head against object.
coup injury in front of head; contrecoup backward injury.
15. What category of injury to the brain is this – coup or contrecoup?
hemorrhagic Infarcts. embolus. source of emboli - most common sources showers small emboli - MI mural thrombus. more common than atrial fibrillation, carotid. problems with heart.
16. Thrombus or embolus as cause of these changes?
Uncal herniation. Tissue herniated on right side. Cause increased ICP (any space-occupying lesion)
17. What is the abnormality in this picture? The abnormality reflects a change in the equilibrium with in the cranial cavity. What is the change?
dilated ventricles - hydrocephalus. communicating
18. What is the abnormality in this slide?
Epidural hematoma. A blood clot is seen over the external surface of the dura. Such a location for hemorrhage is virtually always the result of trauma that causes a tear in the middle meningeal artery.
19. What is the source of blood in this type of hematoma?
most common cause berry aneurysm. trauma. subarachnoid hemorrhage.
20. The most common cause of this type of hemorrhage in the brain is ____________.
dark brown areas hemorrhage. hemorrhagic infarct.
21. What pathologic nomenclature would you attach to this lesion?
Charcot-Bouchard. multiple small aneurysms.
22. Rupture of these small aneurysms that affect the small arteries in the brain that culminates in the hemorrhage that is so characteristic in hypertensive patients, These are ________ _________ aneurysms.
surface phenomenon. surface tissue lost. multiple contusions. bruising. underlying tissue may be necrotic.
23. The arrows designate what changes?
subarachnoid hemorrhage. leave imprint on brain. similar to above pict.
24. The change on the surface of the brain was caused by _____________.
Arnold Chiari malformation - caused to small. cerebellum pushed down into brainstem. Larger than normal Dandy-Walker. roofless, cyst?
25. This type of malformation is a reflection of the size of the _______ ______, and in this case it is smaller or is it bigger than normal?
Mammilary body brown bc specimen fixed. Wernicke encephalopathy secondary to chronic alcoholism. Korsikoff's kyphosis w/confabulation.
26. A change that reflects a deficiency of a substance that may be caused by limited intake of appropriate food or by alcoholism. What is the abnormality?
Looks similar to above, but is Ischemic infarct with thrombus.
27. What is the lesion?
abnormality on left near hole; soft area. Respirator brain. Global ischemia.
28. Extensive softening of the brain from necrosis and autolysis occurred in this woman who suffered a prolonged hypotensive episode. She never regained consciousness. How would you categorize the changes in the brain?
hemorrhagic infarct. embolus.
29. Thrombus or embolus as a cause?
basal ganglia affected area.
30. Hypertensive hemorrhage?
hemorrhagic fat embolus. same thing.
31. What type of infarct is this? Ischemic or hemorrhagic?