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15 Cards in this Set

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Describe 5 ways that Brown mentions for approaching the integration of the four skills:
Content Based Instruction (CBI), Theme Based, Experiential Learning, Episode Hypothesis, Task Based Teaching
Content Based Instruction (CBI)
Language teaching integrates the learning of some specific subject-matter content with the learning of the L2. Ss are forced to learn about subject matter ie; medicine and need to get ahead in English. First concerned about content then language. There is meaningful learning, using very useful, practical objectives as the subject matter. Examples:
SDAIE: Sheltered English –social studies where teacher slows down giving English support so Ss don’t fall behind, or Immersion programs for elementary Ss, or writing across curriculum taught within all majors; biology, history, art, etc., or English for Specific Purposes (ESP) e.g., engineering, agriculture, medicine
Theme Based
Structuring a course around themes or topics. For example, an intensive English course for intermediate pre-university Ss might deal with topics such as the environment, public health, world economics, research, issues, and include writing projects, having Ss create their own environmental awareness material, play simulation games, or arranging field trips. (Creating a tourist brochure Orange county theme).
Experiential Learning
stresses the use of concrete objects, realia, grocery storeà categorize. Activities that engage both left and right brain processing The Valentines’ activity for example.
Episode Hypothesis
based on learning in sequence (Adventures). Time sequence could help language learners figure out what’s going on. Organize helps. Like Soap Opera character…
Task Based Teaching
language oriented functional purpose of language. It’s communicative activity like persuasion task: Help deciding where parents would live? Sometimes very language specific- using grammar orientation – past tense. For tasks, input can be very interesting like task for persuasion.
Describe the complexity of the task of listening: what does a hearer need to be able to do in order to make intake out of input.
An interactive process as the brain acts on the impulses, bringing to bear a number of different cognitive and affective mechanisms. (Clark & Clark 1977, and Richards 1983) The following eight processes are all involved in comprehension:
1.Processes “raw speech”
2.Holds it in short term memory
3.Identifies the type of speech event.
4.Interprets message
5.Infers objectives of the speaker through the type of speech event, context and content.
6.Identifies function: Is the speaker trying to persuade, request, exchange pleasantries, etc.
7.Recalls background information schemata
8. Assigns literal meaning.
8 Factors that make listening difficult: (Dunkel 1991; Richards 1983; Ur 1984)
· Clustering: our predisposition in English to break down speech into smaller groups of words rather than sentences as the unit of organization (in written language).
· Redundancy: Spoken language unlike written language has redundancy. Ss might initially get confused by this, but can learn to take advantage of it providing more processing time.
· Reduced Forms: [See Whaddaya say?] can be phonological (djeetyet?), morphological (contraction- I’ll), syntactic, pragmatic (Mom, phone!). These reductions pose significant difficulties for L2 learners who have only been exposed to the full forms of English.
· Performance Variables: Hesitations, false starts, pauses, ungrammatical forms, and corrections are common. Native listeners are trained to weed out such performance variables, whereas it can easily interfere with comprehension among L2 learners.
· Colloquial Language: Idioms, slang, reduced forms, and shared cultural knowledge.
· Rate Of Delivery: unlike reading, where a person can stop and go back to reread something, in listening, the hearer may not always have the opportunity to stop the speaker, the stream of speech will continue to flow. Learners need to be trained to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of speed and with few pauses.
· Stress, Rhythm And Intonation: prosodic features of the English language are very important for comprehension as they interpret not only such straightforward elements as questions, statements, and emphasis but also more subtle messages like sarcasm, endearment, insult, solicitations, praise, etc.
· Interaction: to learn to listen is also to learn to respond and to continue a chain of listening and responding. Students need to understand that good listeners are good responders. They need to know how to negotiate meaning, to ask for clarifications, to maintain a topic so that the process of comprehending can be complete rather than being aborted by insufficient interaction.
Describe and contrast activities that address accuracy and those that address fluency:
Accuracy v. Fluency
· Accuracy refers to being grammatical, clear, articulate, phonologically correct.
· Fluency refers to speech that “flows” and is natural. (very hard to quantify or pin down)
· CLT suggests that we focus on fluency at the beginning, then gradually allow Ss to focus on relevant forms.
· Know how to identify the individual aspects of speaking and pronunciation.
· Too much focus on accuracy at the wrong times takes away the chance to focus on the message. (pp. 268-9;)
Accuracy Activities - Language Usage
n Drilling: Offer Ss ability to listen and to orally repeat difficult language forms; either phonological or grammatical. Offer limited practice through repetition. Allow one to focus on one element of language in a controlled activity. Minimal Pairs Drills (p. 288) ie; peg v. beg both bilabial stops; used to practice distinction between sounds. Dictation:: Has value, It provides a chance to check and reveal language to Ss especially what they don’t hear like prepositions. at the beginning of learning to write -Ss will simply write down Listing, Cloze tests
Fluency Activities - Language Use
Role Play/Simulations/Jigsaw/Information gap. Problem solving, interview, opinion exchange,
Be familiar with the factors that most affect pronunciation and be prepared to suggest ways that you can help Ss deal with them.
Activities for Teaching and Practicing Pronunciation
· Minimal Pairs (p. 288) ie; peg v. beg both bilabial stops; used to practice distinction between sounds.
If you don’t have this in your language difficult to hear because its so close that you can’t tell. Tin/thin, ban/van hard even if you can see the teeth—accents are created when people go to the closest sound they can make from their L1.
· Use context whenever possible (See Examples 1-3) If you have explained context à it helps them bring in learned stress.
Identify characteristics of a “peak performer”:
· Realistic goals: Know their limitations, set realistic goals, and write down some short term and long term goals
· Set priorities: Have a sense of what is most important
· Take risks: Open to and reach out new challenges; Learn from failure.
· Practice principles of stress management: Work hard but stop to play, don’t take on too many extra duties, and balance life by taking everything into perspective.
Be able to use formal terminology to identify pronunciation errors that are made by L2 learners.
Global/Local Errors: Local refers to errors that do not impede communication. Usually do not need to be corrected for the sake of maintaining flow of communication. Global errors – impede communication. (suprasegmentals usually impede communication whereas, segmentals are responsible for local errors). Types of Errors
n Global – impede comprehension (if working on fluency always respond to these errors.)
n Local – accent, intonation inaccuracy, message is clear; don’t always need to correct.
Deductive v. Inductive:
Inductive approach: various language forms are practiced but the learners are left to discover or induce the rules on their own.
Deductive approach: Ss are given a rule/generalization by the teacher or textbook and then allowed to practice various instances of language to which the rule applies. In most contexts an inductive approach is more appropriate. However, there may be occasional moments, when a deductive approach or blend of the two is indeed warranted.