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28 Cards in this Set

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Kandinsky, from Concerning the Spiritual in Art
Art creation reflects its culture(his is of desperation, disbelief, lack of purpose)
Spiritual Life of Humanity is a pyramid (with a few artists at the top)
Colors provoke a physical and a spiritual effect
Artist can create a state of mind with the use of the colors, but subjects can get in the way (the way objects are always new to babies until they get used to them)
Piano story is in this reading
Harrison, extracts from “Abstraction” [BB]
-Meanings in paintings should not be evaluated by correspondence to things in the world, but by place and function within a composition
-Different styles can be linked and explained by different personal beliefs
-Definition of abstract should be based on representation but understanding that figuration in a painting is always relative and as long as we "see in " a painting not look at the surface than painting will not be ornamental
-intention to produce abstract art was thus an intention to advance non-figurative work not as forms of mere decoration or ornament but as forms of art
-to ascribe meaning to a painting to a work is to invoke considerations of intention but that is not conclusive at all
-The first abstract painting had to recognize abstract as a new form of art
Tzara, “Dada Manifesto 1918”
-THE IDEA THAT EVERYTHING MUST BE QUESTIONED IS BASED ON THE VALUATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN EVERY INSTANCE
-Celebration of negation, contradiction, spontaneity, destructive action

-Everything must be questioned even Dada
-All pictorial or plastic work is useless
-Must reject all that is bourgeois
-Valuation of individual as independent of the bourgeois mentality
-Art is a private affair
-The artist is happy to be insulted as it is proof of his immutability
-Anti-human action
-Morality doesn't come from a higher up or is spiritual but it just is arbitrarily ascribed by the academic
-Art is a private affair
-All about questioning
-There is no ultimate truth
-
Batchelor, “‘This Liberty and This Order,’” pages 30-64 [RRS]
Overall--
THE DIFFERENT GROUPS ALL TOOK THEIR JUSTIFICATONS FROM APOLLINAIRE AND PICASSO

APOLLINAIRE GAVE BRETON IDEAS ABOUT DREAM AND IMAGINATIONS


-Dada is not a single group of artist
-militant towards society
-collage, according to chance, logic is false, use of non-altered objects to question art, use of machine to be skeptical of human capabilities
-Berlin was much more political, groups agreed of failure of institutions but disagreed about emancipation efforts, systematically avoided consistency,

Surrealism
-critique of rationalism, call to order merged with romanticism, no literature but means of mind liberation, few references to art in early magazines, automatic writing probes unconsicous,

max ernst

automatic techniques used to avoid reason or control, frottage

Joan Miro

Used amorphous organic forms silhouette against indefinite deep space, miro has traditional academic training and use traditional subject

Surrealist Collage
disruptive character as objects are taken from their expectations
De Stijl Manifesto 1
-Leading Figure was Van Doesburg

-Struggle between universal and individual

-Traditions, dogmas, domination of individual opposed to realization of new spirit

-Pure artistic expression

-Founders of new plastic art want to destroy these obstacles
Mondrian, Neo-Plasticism: The General Principle of Plastic Equivalence
There is a fundamental rift between the individual and the universal. The individual represents the natural world and that has been conquered with technology. The only way to balance out the universal is to reveal the universal. The universal can only be revealed by studying the plastic relations of art. The plastic art still is a combination of both elements. Reducing 3D planes to single plane expresses its true relationship. This new art comes from a new spirit.
Mondrian, “The Realization of Neo-Plasticism in the Distant Future and in Architecture Today”
Art comes out of life's imperfection, but it is the pure plastic expression of harmony. Art is there to help us harmonize the disharmony between us and the world and once that happens art will merge with life. We experience harmony in art and makes us change the world.Life is not ready for the merge, but the current art won't suffice so a new art is needed. Merge cannot happen until neoplas is appreciated as art. Architecture is a multiplicity of planes but the materials aren't there yet.
Gropius, “The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus”
only work of inner compulsion has meaning so the solution for worker is focusing on attitude not working conditions.

There is universal unity with opposing forces in balance

Art cannot be taught but dexterity of worker can

Aim of Bauhaus is to eliminate barriers between structural and decorative arts

Man has biological existence

Must break down conventional though so man can discover his own abilities

Art wants to triumph over nature
Moholy-Nagy, selections from The New Vision (1928) [BB]
Man has a biological existence which has been suppressed lately. Specialization in a "calling" is only good when it balances emotional and intellectual power.

We should not be opposed to technology but use it to advance society and make physical life easier.

Humans are very capable and that should be our goal

Artists must develop sensory expertise and skill

The material of the medium is unique and has its own life and value

The sciences can reveal to us a certain type of harmony which we all seek in relationships
R. M Schindler, "Manifesto"
The aim of all architectural
effort was the conquest of structural bulk by man's will for expressive
form.

The architect has finally discovered the medium of his art: SPACE.

Man has defeated nature and so functionalism and structuralism is dead

The comfort of a dwelling lies in its complete control of: space,
climate, light, mood, within its confines.
Neutra, selections from Survival Through Design
Ch.10 devoted to an analysis of the super-subtle effects of technological processes on the nervous system

in Neutra’s hands, material exhalations link design to the most primordial events of biological genesis
Cronan, “‘Danger in the Smallest Dose’: Richard Neutra’s Design Theory” (2011) [BB]
the places that we inhabit directly affect our health based on infinite number of stimuli and the largest harms come from this mostly psychological

materials are linked to primordial events in life and this defines the basis for design

prewar to postwar= social issues to psychoanalytical

everything in life is to dell with birth trauma

shock is the only way to overcome these ills because the shocks trigger those primordial events

prewar focused on open spaces and home owner sovereignty

neutra's focus was always about improving the clients life satisfaction

Neutra coerced his "open" spaces to be used a certain way and never focused the interpretation of his work on its "meaning"
Malevich, “Non-objective Art and Suprematism”
Square is a primogenitor of suprematism

it is a language not concerned with object, it is a definite system with the development of color

system is constructed in time and space independent of considerations of beauty

man's path lies across spaces

white is actual representation of infinity

utilitarian intentions are limited and deal with the past

object is the limiting factor from development

cannot be contained or confined with walls of aesthetic planes

we will be free only when will is able to formulate basis for new phenomenon.
Malevich, The Question of Imitative Art
the unity of man against the old people is necessary

the old and the capitalist has no value in the advancement of man

the new art is simple but it is difficult to recreate

creativity is the essence of man and everyone should part take in it

new art opens up visions of a new world

art no longer rests on the aesthetic but on creative economic path

new art demands actions of natural investigation

movements no longer are based on aesthetic but on intellectual ideals

essence of the new art is creation and not representation

imitation art must be destroyed and we need to give art to the masses
Malevich, “Letter to Meyerhold”
People do not yet understand that art is non-objective and until masses understand that we will have to walk them along with figurative art

new objects from revolution have given form and the artist must go back and elevate those themes into art

Constructivism in theater right now will allow old forms of art to prevail

Culture of arts must not disappear
Malevich, two letters [BB]
there is no painting in suprematist elements and he says painting is necessary to express certain feelings

movement against painting is dangerous because machine cannot express spiritual sensations

new art is not ideological, non-objective, intensity depends on various sensations

------------------------

Machine will never take control of man an this will drive end to the constructivist

constructivists have been conquered by automation

they automate out of the old conditions

Art freed itself from objective to not to automate, but to perfect itself
Rodchenko, “Slogans and Organizational Program”
Construction is the organization of elements

Art is a branch of science

Construction is utilitarian

Art must enter into life of it will be come an antiquity

Life (Constructivist) > Malevich (Magic)

Reject art for art sake and the bourgeoisie

Work for life not the ancients establishments

Art is to be found by research and construction
Rodchenko and Stepanova, “Program of the First Working Group of Constructivists”
aim to synthesize ideological with the practical

believe in historical materialism

reject art for art sake

wish to master these practical structures in order to be organized and scientific

1)Tectonics-combination of communism and the industrial material

2)Faktura- constructed or worked material but still has its tectonic characteristics

3)Construction-organized function of constructivism
Gan, from Constructivism
Tectonic defines objects nature that leads to new forms. It is the material in its organic, raw state

Factura is the state of transformation of this art

No pure art can exist only utilitarian work

Nothing must be made according to chance it must be organized and directed to achieve goals

No space for art because we must work for the social improvement

Rejection of individual expression or impressionism or realism
Brik, “From Picture to Calico-Print”
Picture art is dying, everything else must be purpose-oriented, practical, utilitarian

Easel painting becomes outdated in a month

Easel artists are monks thinking life outside of life will save life

Easel is a detriment to art's advancement

Easel painters main fault is claiming that easel art is key to art history and to master of all other art forms

Production art is key to solving art's problems today

Production art as an idea is still not widely understood

The art culture of the future is in factories

This is opposed to what Mondrian thought
Schwitters, “Merz-Painting"
Merzbilder are abstract combination of all conceivable materials. It makes use of all materials perceptible to the eye. It is unimportant if it was formed for some purpose or other. The artist creates through choice and metamorphosis of the materials.
Schwitters Merz 1,”
What the material denoted before its use is of no importance as long as it is correctly evaluated and given artists meaning. Picture is a self-contained work that refers to nothing outside of itself. Nor can a art refer to anything outside of itself without loosening its ties to art.
Schwitters “Merz,”
The medium is as unimportant as I myself but most important is the forming.

I plat material against material.
Schwitters “Logically Consistent Poetry”
The basic material of poetry is letter not word.

It is impossible to explain the meaning of art, it is infinite. Material consistently formed must be unequivocal

It is the same for everyone independent of the personal attitude.

Meaning is dependent on the imaginative capacity of the beholder.

The association of ideas cannot be unequivocal because it is dependent solely on the associative capacity of the beholder.

Abstract poetry released the word from its associations—this is a great service—and evaluated word against word and in particular, concept against concept, with some thought paid to the sound.

A strict distinction must be drawn between the writing and the reciting of poetry. To the reciter, written poetry is merely raw material.

Letters have no conceptual content. Letters have no sound in themselves, they only contain possibilities of sounds, which may be interpreted by the performer. A logically consistent poem evaluates letters and groups of letters against each other.
Le Corbusier, “Purism” (1920) [BB]
A work of art seeks to sense mathematical order by using universal means.

Primary sensations are universal and come from forms and primary colors

Secondary sensations comes from cultural training (sphere vs billiard ball)

Art only using primary is ornamental

Only using secondary lacks a plastic base

There are objects that are true extension of our limbs and that harmonizes with man

The Purist element is like a plastic word duly formed, complete,
with precise and universal reactions

Composition and conception are completely different states of mind

Painting is not a surface but a space

Painting cannot be made without color.

Fatality of color can be solved by harmonizing it with unity

Form should come first and everything is subordinate to it

Art allows spectator enter into state desired by the creator.
Le Corbusier, from Toward a New Architecture (1923) [BB]
Engineer's aesthetic is calculation, universal law, and harmony.

Architect uses forms and shapes to stir our emotions and show beauty

Reminders to Architects
1) primary forms no longer achieve anything now it is about geometric forms

2) The greatest problems today require geometrical and mathematical forms

3) Modern life requires a new type of planning

Regulating lines are necessary for order and understanding

The new spirit is made up of industrial production. While style is a unity of an epoch each day the new epoch is being made.

Architecture goes beyond ultilitarian needs it is a plastic thing.

Exterior of a building is the result of the interior

Contour and profile are a creation of the minds

Architecture has revision of values of the elements of the house.

Mass-production is based on experiment and industry must occupy the need buildings

Workers no longer have dwellings
adapted to their needs; neither the artisan nor the intellectual.

It is a question of building which is at the root of the social unrest of today:
architecture or revolution
Le Corbusier and Jeanneret, “Five Points for a New Architecture” (1927) [BB]
We must

1) create individual supports instead of walls

2)Roof gardens because cities can them reclaim these lost areas

3) Because of independent supports there is the freedom to create interior plans as anyone wishes

4) Need long windows to allow lots of light to enter these spaces

5) Because of the previous elements the architect is then free to design the facade in anyway he wishes.

This gives way to a new aesthetic
Le Corbusier, from When the Cathedrals were White (1936) [BB]
Great things have been accomplished when people have tried to created new things. They attempted to conquer harmony and had a new spirit

Venice is an example of this because of its perfected functionality and execution.

They are the reality of the world and each individual person and that they require the participation of everyone.

Greatness is in the intention. Just because something natural happens to look similar to something man has created the quality of spirit in the man made is much more valuable.

I do not wish to maintain, but to create

Loves the US because everything is constanlty changing and he feels the sense of the new sprit in the air.

Loves the Bridge over the Hudson because it does not give weight to ornament but it's beauty is derived from mathematical accomplishment.

Reality and the idea of constant creation gives America its greatness.