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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific Management perspective
Theoretical approach to organizations that emphasizes organizational design, worker training for efficiency, chains of command, and division of labor. These perspective rests on the assumption that work and organizations can be rationally or "scientifically" designed and developed.
Time and motion
Technique for determining the efficiency of production through work observation and time measurements; used to develop work standards that can be measured for efficiency.
Fayol's bridge
Horizontal communication between peers.
Organizations based on formalized rules, regulations, and procedures, which make authority rational as opposed to charismatic or traditional.
Chain of command
Formal authority and reporting structure of an organization.
Human Behavior perspective
Theories of organizations that emphasize the interactions of individuals, their motivations, and their influence on organizational events.
Hawthorne effect
Group norms that influence productivity apart from the physical production enviroment.
Theory X-Theory Y
McGregor's description of management assumptions about workers. Theory X characterizes assumptions underlying Scientific Management theory, and Theory Y is associated with assumptions common to Human Behavior perspectives. Theory X managers assume that workers dislike work and will avoid responsible labor. Theory Y managers believe that workers can be self-directed and self-controlled.
Participative management
Likert's theory of employee-centered management based on effectively functioning groups linked together structurally throughout the organization.
Intergrated Perspectives
Theories that attempt to explain how people, technologies, and environments integrate to influence goal-directed behavior.
Decision-making approach
Simon's concept that organizational behavior is a complex network of decisions, with decision-making processes influencing the behavior of the entire organization.
Bounded rationality
Assumption that people intend to be rational, but with limited information-processing capacity, human decision making is based on selevtive perception and therefore exhibits "limited" rationality.
Sociotechnical integration
Theoretical attempt to balance human social-psychological needs with organizational goals; an assumption that organizational production is optimized through optimizing social and technical systems.
Contingency theory
Approach that rejects the "one best way" to organize in favor of the view that no specific set of prescriptions is appropriate for all organizations. As such, organizations must adapt to changing circumstances and the needs of individuals and the environment in which the organization operates.
Systems theory
Describes organizations as made up of subsystems that take in materals and human resources, process materials and recources, and yield a finished product to the larger environment.
Process describing each element in a system simultaneously combining the maintenance of itself with the maintenance of the other elements of the system.
Dissipative structures
Descriptions of structures when a loss of energy and form contributes to disequilibrium, which in turn contributes to growth and new structures and forms.
Self-organizing or self-renewing systems
Processes occurring when disturbances amplify stimulating reconfigurations to deal with new information.
Chaos theory
Description of systems disturbed from stable states to states of unpredictability.
Learning organizations
Organizations gaining knowledge from continuous processes of information exchange between the organization and its environments.
Cultural approaches
Theories that describe how organizational members collectively interpret the organizational world around them to define the importance of organizational happenings. Approaches to theory that explain organizational behavior in terms of the influence of cultures that exist both internally and externally to the organization.
Theory Z
Ouchi's theory derived from comparisons between Japanese and American organizations Theory Z organizations retain individual achievement and advancement as a model but provide a continuing sense of organizational community not typical of many U.S. organizations.
Postmodern and Critical Perspectives
Theories that focus on power and domination and on challenges to hierarchy, bureaucracy, and management control.
Feminist Perspectives
Theories that critique the gendered assumptions of modern organizations and call for the recognition and valuing of multiple voices and perspectives.