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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the kidney and liver?
-kidney and liver= two highly vascular organs whose primary function is to purify blood by filtering fluids through cellular membranes
Which radiation causes which cancers?
-radioactive iodine: thyroid
-radioactive gases: throat and lung
-heavy metals/x-rays: bone &
Electromagnetic energy is aka
Chemotroph vs. autotroph
chemotroph- get energy from chemicals
autotroph- utilize CO2 as carbon source
Phototroph vs. heterotroph
phototroph- energy from light
chemotroph- energy from chemicals
-cannot survive on minimal medium because can't synthesize a molecule it needs to survive
-deficiency in a sugar means: cannot utilize it
-deficiency in an amino acid means: cannot make it
Thermophile, mesophile, psychrophiles?
thermophile- survive in hot temps
mesophile- survive in moderate temps
psychrophiles- survive in cold temps (have enzymes that enable this)
3 Types of anaerobes
Anaerobes do NOT require oxygen.
1) Obligate anaerobes: poisoned by oxygen
2) tolerant anaerobes: can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen but DONT use it in their metabolism
3) Facultative anaerobes: will USE oxygen when it's around but dont need it
How do bacteria reproduce?
via binary fission, NOT sexually
-no meiosis, no genetic diversity (daughter cells are identical to parent cells)
How does asexual reproduction in eukaryotes differ from that in prokaryotes?
in euk- asexual reproduction is through mitosis
in prok- no mitosis
lag phase, log phase, stationary phase
lag phase- short time period prior to exponential growth of bacterial population, during which there is NO growth but there IS biosynthesis (i.e., glycolysis)
log phase- the period of exponential growth of a bacterial population
stationary phase- hibernation, cease to divide b/c lack of nutrients
What are endospores and during which phase of bacterial life cycle do they form?
Endospores= tough, thick external shell of peptidoglycan, form under unfavorable growth conditions
-form during stationary (hibernation) phase
What is metabolic reactivation of an endospore called?
3 mechanisms by which bacteria acquire new genetic material:
1) transduction: lysogenic phage
2) transformation: internalizing DNA
3) conjugation:
Are fungi prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Eukaryotes, mostly nonmobile & multicellular (except yeast-unicellular)
What is the fungus' cell wall composed of?
chitin (hard)
a type of fungi that feeds off dead plants and animals
feed off other organisms, doing them harm
live in a symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit
Are most fungi aerobes or anaerobes? Which type specifically? What about yeast?
Most fungi= obligate aerobes
Yeast= facultative anaerobe
Structure of fungi
-cells joined end to end, separated by cell wall= septae hyphae
-aseptae hyphae= composed of cells joined together in a long tube, nuclei shared
-mycellium= meshwork of hyphae
A large fungal structure visible to the eye is called a...
The vegetative part is for...
And the fruiting body is for...
-veg part is for obtaining nutrients
-fruiting body is for reproduction (role: to make spores)
Asexual reproduction in fungi occurs via which 3 methods?
1) budding- a smaller hyphus grows outward from existing one
2) fragmentation- mycelium can be broken --> pieces, formation of new mycelium
3) spore production- spores germinate to form new hyphae
All the cells of a fungal adult are...
haploid (once 2 haploid fuse, meiosis quickly occurs to make haploid cells)
What is complementary DNA?
cDNA is DNA copied from fully spliced eukaryotic mRNA (using reverse transcriptase)
-inserted in plasmids for transforming bacteria during production of recombinant DNA because bacteria lack splicing mechanisms to make the functional protein (for humans) wanted
What are protozoans?
Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotes, mostly heterotrophic, and in many cases can reproduce sexually or asexually