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112 Cards in this Set

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What is a true hermaphrodite?
Has both ovary and testis. External genitalia is ambigious (often more female).
What is a pseudohermaphrodite?
Has either an ovary with male external genitalia or testis with female external genitalia.
What is an ovotestis?
Combined organ in one. May have seminiferous tubules with follicles. External genitalia is often female or ambiguous.
What is the pathogenesis of cryptochidism?
Deficiency of testosterone +/- Mullerian duct inhibiting substance causes failure of descent of testis into scrotum.
What are the lesions associated with cryptorchidism?
Unilateral or bilateral, if unilateral L usually retained;
Testis may be intraabdominal or near the inguinal ring "flanker";
Atrophic degeneration of testis
What is the sequelae to cryptorchidism?
Infertile if bilateral; If unilateral, increased susceptiblity to testicular neoplasia (sertoli cells)
What are the gross lesions associated with testicular hypoplasia?
Small, atrophied, flabby testicle
What are the histologic lesions associated with testicular hypoplasia?
Sertoli cells, low vacuolated epithelium in seminiferous tubules;
Decreased spermatogenesis

Not all tubules equally affected
What is the sequelae to testicular hypoplasia?
Decreased fertility or sterile
What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
XXY chromosomes due to non-disjunction during meiosis.

In cats, will have a tricolor male (color pattern assoicated witih X chromosome)

Animals usually infertile with testicular atrophy
What is the histologic appearance of a testicle in a cat with Klinefelter's syndrome?
Similar to hypoplasia of testicle --> Sertoli cessl, low vacoulated epithelium in seminiferous tubules
What is a chimeric?
Has more than one cell populations --> has both XY and XX cells (usually sterile)

Freemartin calves are an example due to fusion of placenta with littermate in utero
What is a mosaic?
Single cell source with non-disjunction during mitosis at early stages of embryo development
What is a varicocele?
In rams especially, dilated, congested veins in pampiniform plexus though to be caused by segmental hyperplasia of veins
What is the sequelae of a varicocele?
Problem regulating temperature in testis --> sterility
What is the sequlae of torsion of the spermatic cord?
Occurs frequently in cryptorchids which results in infarction --> veins collapse and blood keeps pumping --> becomes engorged
List etiologies of testicular degeneration and necrosis.
Trauma
Thermal Injury
Nutritional deficiency
Chemical Toxins
Hyperestrinogenism
Ischemia
Autoimmune reaction
Obstruction of outflow ducts
Concurrent disease in host
What are the gross lesions associated with testicular degeneration and necrosis?
Initially: atrophic, soft --> firm
What histopathological lesions would be observed with testicular degeneration and necrosis?
Tubular degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis
What is the sequelae to testicular degeneration?
Permanent infertility;

If caught early, regeneration and slow return of fertility if cause is removed
List common etiologies of orchitis.
Bacterial: Brucella, A. pyogenes, Coliforms, Mycobacterium

Autoimmune --> infiltration of lymphocytes

Viral: EIA, Blue Tongue, Sheep pox
What are gross lesions of orchitis?
Swollen, exudate on surface of the tunics, abscesses or granulomas in the testis (+/-), firm from fibrosis if chronic
What are the histopathologica changes observed with orchitis?
Inflammatory cell infiltrate; tubular necrosis; fibrosis and congestion

+/- bacterial organism present
What is the sequelae to orchitis?
Sertility
What is the gross appearance of Interstitial cell tumors (Leydig cell tumors)?
Yellow (CL-like), may be hemorrhagic often does not produce a change in size or shape of the testis
What is the histological appearance of Interstitial Cell Tumors (Leydig Cell Tumors)?
Large eosinophilic cells in INTERSTITIUM
What is the gross appearance of a seminoma?
Soft and white, frequently in cryptorchid testis.
What is the microscopic appearance of seminomas?
Large polygonal cells filling the tubules
What is the gross appearance of Sertoli cell tumors?
White, firm and frequently found in cryptorchid testis.

May be functional and produce hyperestrogenism
What is the histologic appearance of Sertoli cell tumors?
Tall vacoulated cells
What are physical changes associated with Sertoli cell tumors?
Alopecia
Gynecomastia
Attract males
Genital atrophy
What is the gross appearance of teratomas?
Large firm mass with multiple types of tissue (bone, hair, tooth, cysts)
List two anomolies of the epididymis.
Segmental aplasia --> band of tissue replaces segment

Congential Spermatocele --> usually found at the head of the epididymis because there was failure of the efferent duct to fuse with the epididymis
What causes an aquired spermatocele and sperm granuloma?
Secondary to obstruction of outflow ducts by occlusion with inflammatory exudate or stenosis by inflammatory changes (sperm are recognized as foreign bodies)
What is the gross appearance of sperm granulomas
Cystic distention of the epididymis by white to yellow paste-like material that resembles an abscess
List common etiologies for epididymitis.
Bacterial: Brucella, coliforms

Mycotic: Blastomyces

Trauma: Sperm granuolma
What are the lesions associated with epididymitis?
Dilated cord-like
Distention by inflammatory exudate
Congestion and necrosis of mucosa
Fibrosis if chronic
What is the sequelae of epididymitis?
Spermatocele, sperm granuloma, testicular degeneration and atrophy
List the causes of protatitis
Bacterial: Brucella, ascending coliform sp.

Secondary to prostatic hyperplasia in dogs
What does prostatitis look like grossly?
Swollen, pus on section +/- abscesses, firm and fibrotic if chronic
What does protatitis look like on histopath?
Depend on the cause:

Suppurative exudate in acini or interstitial mononuclear/lymphoid cell infiltrate
What are the causes of prostatic hyperplasia?
Age

Testosterone-dependant condition (not seen in castrates and regresses wtih castration and exogenous estrogens)
What are the gross lesions associated with prostatic hyperplasia?
Large, firm multiple cysts - macrovesicluar or microvesicular
What does prostatic hyperplasia look like on histopathology?
Papilliferous proliferation of acinar epithelium --> cells are taller than normal

+/- cysts
What is the sequelae of prostatic hyperplasia?
Obstructive uropathy --> secondary cystitis

Prostatitis

Constipation, tenesmus --> perineal hernia
List the causes of balanoposthitis
Bacterial: granular veneral disease (ureaplasm)

Viral: Herpes viruses --> Infectious pustular vulvovaginits in cattle, equine coital exanthema

Parastic: habronemiasis, Trypanosoma equiperdum
List the neoplastic dieases of the external genitalia.
Fibropapilloma in bulls

Squamous papillomas in horses

Squamous cell carcinoma in horses

Transmissible veneral tumor in dogs
What are lesions associated with segmental aplasia of the Mullerian duct system?
Segmental aplasia
Mucometra
Persistent hymen
Doubling of tract (uterus, cervix)
Unilateral development of tract
+/- Infertility
What are the lesions associated with ovarian hypoplasia?
Atrophic, firm, inactive ovaries

Can be bilateral or unilateral

Tubular genitalia are also undeveloped
What is the pathogenesis of parauterine (serosal) cysts?
Retained portions of the Wolfian duct --> multiple fluid filled cysts attached to wall of uterus
What is the gross appearance of hypertrophic ovaries in horses?
Large and congested from stimulation by placental hormones --> may be mistakened for kidneys
What is the pathogenesis of cystic follicles?
Lack of luteninzing hormone (LH) to induce ovulation.

Failure of hypothalamus to release "gonadotropin releasing hormone" in response to estrogen --> lack of LH release --> no ovulation --> persistent follicle --> anestrus
What are the extraovarian lesions of hyperestrogenism due to cyctic follicles?
Endometrial hyperplasia (predispose to secondary pyometra), cystic mammary hyperplasia, uterine fibroids, cystic Gartner's ducts, vulvar edema and prominent clitoris.
What is the pathogenesis of luteinized cystic follicles?
Caused by some but insufficient LH to cause ovulation.

Low level LH --> cystic follicle --> luteinized cystic follicle --> anestrus
What are the causes of retained corpora lutea (pseudopregnancy/pseudocyesis)?
Failure of CL to regress normally following ovulation in the non-pregnant bitch
What are the gross lesions associated with a retained CL?
Uterine and mammary development as for pregnancy observed 30-90 days post-estrus, and has spontaneous regression
List the causes of oophoritis.
Bacterial: Salmonella pullorum, TB
Secondary bacterial infections following salpingitis, metritis and perimetritis
What are the lesions associated with oophoritis?
Acute: hyperemia, +/- exudate, +/- granuloma

Chronic: adhesions/scarring
What is the gross and histologic appearance of granulosa/theca cell tumors?
Large, spherical, white fleshy and sometimes cystic mass

Cysts are lined by granulosa cells surrounded by variable populationss of thecal cells and cysts may contain "call exner" bodies
What are causes of hydrosalpinx (obstruction of the oviduct)?
Congential --> segmental aplasia

Acquired Stenosis --> secondary post-inflammatory scarring
What lesions are assoicated with hydrosalpinx?
Distention by watery or mucoid content, often unilateral
What is the sequelae of hydrosalpinx?
If bilateral, sterility
What are the causes of salpingitis?
Usually secondary to endometritis and metritis via ascending extension
What are the lesions associated with salpangitis?
Catarrhal or suppurative exudate on necrotic mucosa; if pus accumuates in lumen, then it is called pyosalpinx
List common physical injuries of the female reproductive tract.
Cervical prolapse --> secondary to dystocia; scarring

Uterine prolapse --> Mainly cow and ewe, only postpartum when cervix remains open

Uterine Torsion --> pregnancy, pyometra, hydrometer --> produces dystoica

Uterine Laceration and Rupture --> usually secondary to obstetrical manipulations, occassionally spontaneous; hemorrhage, peritonitis, ectopic fetus
What are causes of uterine prolapse?
Hypocalcemia --> retained placenta, dystocia in cattle

Hyperestrogenism in ewes
List the causes of endometrial hyperplasia.
Hyperestrogenism

Hyperprogesteronism

Plant estrongens

Estrogen-producing tumors
What is the pathogenesis of endometrial hyperplasia?
Hormonal stimulation of endometrium --> endometrial hyperplasia --> overproduction of mucous
What are the gross lesions of endometrial hyperplasia?
Thick spongy "Swiss cheese" mucus-covered mucosa, often secondary to pyometra
What are the histopathologic lesions of endometrial hyperplasia?
Cystic distention of mucosal glands by mucus, leukocytic infiltration of mucosa
What is the sequelae of endometrial hyperplasia?
Pyometra
What is adenomyosis?
It is when there is infiltration of endometrial tissue into the myometrium
What are the lesions associated with uterine atrophy?
Muscle layer is atrophied and the mucosa is atrophied.
What lesions are present with delayed involution/subinvolution?
Grossly: thick, hemorrhagic elipsoid at sides of prior implantation; retained CL

Histologically: endometrial hemorrhage, trophoblasts invaded into myometrium
What are predisposing factors of endometritis and metritis?
Uterus under progesterone influence, open cervix, dystocia, retained placenta, dead fetus; retained CL in dogs and cows
List 3 causes of endometritis.
Postpartum infection --> secondary to dystocia or retained placenta

Venereal infection --> Camplyobacter, Trichomonas, Tayorella

Hematogenous infection --> Mycobacterium, Brucella
What are the lesions of endometritis?
Grossly: congested and edema with inflammatory exudate (neutrophils) on the surface of the mucosa, flacid wall

Microscopically: lamina propria heavily infiltrated with neutrophils
List the sequelae of endometritis.
Healing with scarring (severe) --> infertile

Healing with regeneration (mild) --> fertile
Wht are the gross lesions of metritis?
Thick flabby wall with congestion, edema and hemorrhage.

Placental debris and inflammatory exudate on necrotic mucosal surface.

Foul odor of contents
What are the histologic lesions of metritis?
mucosal necrosis, leukocytic infiltration extends deeply into muscular layers
List the sequelae of metritis.
Septicemia --> death

Healing with extensive mucosal scarring --> infertility

Healing with mucosal regeneration --> fertile
What is pyometra?
Chronic suppurative endometritis with retention of purulent exudate
List the causes of pyometra.
Dogs: Retained CL --> pseudopregnancy and cystic endometrial hyperplasia predisposes.

Cows: Postpartum infection usually, occasionally venereal.

Pyometra --> loss of endometrium --> decreased synthesis of luteolytic PGF2a --> retained CL
What are the gross lesions of pyometra?
Tract distened by pus
thick flabby wall in cow
In bitch, may be locular distentions of postpartum tract by brown to yellow purulent exudate
What are the histopathologic lesions of pyometra?
Mucosal necrosis, purulent exudate on surface and in uterine glands
List the sequelae of pyometra.
Septicemia --> death

Healing with scarring --> infertile
List the three most common uterine neoplasms.
Leiomyoma/Fibroleiomyoma (Fibroid) --> firm nodular mass in uterine wall, seen with hyperestrogenism

Endometrial adenocarcinoma --> occasional in cow, most commin in aged rabbits

Malignant lymphoma --> occasional in cows
What are common physical injuries of the vulva-vagina?
Laceration or rupture --> seen with dystocia, obstertical manipulation but some is normal during parturiton

Prolapse --> advanced pregnancy, dystocia, hyperestrogenism predisposes

Cystic Gartner's duct --> hyperestrogenism (cows with cystic follicles)
List the causes of vaginitis-vulvitis.
Infection with herpes virus (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis)

Granular venereal disease

Trauma
List the lesions of vaginitis, vulvitis.
Congestion

Mucosal necrosis

Inflammatory exudate on surface
List the most common vulva-vaginal neoplasms.
Fibromatous polyps

Fibroma

Leiomyoma "Fibroid"

Fibropapilloma

Transmissible venereal tumor

Squamous cell carcinoma
List the four different types of placentas and the animals that have those kinds of placentas.
Diffuse --> pig

Zonal/Zonary --> dog, cat

Discoid --> primates

Cotyledonary --> ruminants
What are causes of hydrallantois?
Associated with uterine diseases --> decreased caruncles --> +/- adventitial placentation
What are the lesions of hydroallantois
Excess fluid in the allantoic sac (up to 70 L)

Adventitial placentation

Dead fetus
What is the sequelae to hydrallantois?
Dystocia
Retained placenta
Metritis
Small calves
Abortion
Ascites/Anasara
What is adventitial placentation?
Occurs in cows, is a compensatory development of new endometrial attachment sites in cattle following inflammatory destruction of caruncles
What are the gross lesions of adventitial placentation?
Increased size of remaining caruncles

Formatin of new shaggy mats of intercaruncle placentation
List the causes of placentitis.
Usually form hematogenous infection, may result from venereal or postpartum infection.

Bacterial: Campylobacter, Brucella, Chlamydial, Salmonella

Protozoa: Toxoplasma, Trichomonas

Fungi: Aspergillus, Mucor
What are the lesions associated with placentitis?
Congestion, edema, and hemorrhage in friable necrotic placenta (at cotyledons)

May be thick and leathery in some infections (brucella, mycotic)
List the sequelae of placentitis.
Fetal death and resporption depending on the stage of gestation;
Dystocia;
Retained placenta;
Metritis;
Endometrial scarring
List the clinical expressions of disease by a fetus.
Resorption
Maceration
Mummification
Abortion/Stillbirth
What are the causes of abortion?
External expuslion of the fetus during gestation (may be alive):

Physical injury --> palpation, douching
Genetic --> lethal
Nutritional --> Viatmin A or I deficinecy
Hormonal --> excess corticosteroids, estrogens
Toxins --> NO3, Plants
Infection
Twinning
What is a stillbirth?
Delivery of a dead, full-term fetus, find meconium in aminon fluid
What causes delayed parturition?
Pituitary-adrenal insufficiency in anencphaly;

Pituitary aplasia;

Parturition is induced by fetus
Compare mummification from maceration or fetal emphysema.
Mummification: the fetus and membranes is dry and leathery due to a closed cervix --> sterile environment --> dessicated fetus is retained because no putrifactive bacteria

Maceration/Fetal Emphysema the fetus is retained (bones, pieces of tissue/fluid) --> open cervix --> contamination of environment --> putrefaction of fetus
List the two common distrubances of growth in the mammary gland.
Atrophy --> post lactation involution occurs in all four quarters; post-inflammatory fibrosis replacement can occur in a single quarter

Hyperplasia --> hyperestrogenism and pseudopregancy in dogs; produced by excess progesterone in cats; idiopathic in dogs and cats
List the causes of mastisis.
Bacterial: Strep ssp. Mycoplasm, coliforms --> most infectious occur through teat canal but some can be hematogenous

Viral: pseudocowpox, malignant catarrhal fever, herpesvirus
What are the gross lesions of acute mastitis?
Swollen, red, purulent exudate on section, secretion is serous or hemorrhagic with white clumps
What are the histologic lesions of acute mastitis?
Leukocytic exudation into acini;
congestion;
edema;
necrosis of epithelium
What are the lesions of gangrenous mastitis?
Cold
Lack sensation
Dark purple-black line of demarcation
Foul smell
Sloughing (late)
List the sequelae of mastitis.
Septicemia --> death

Post-inflammatory atrophy and scarring --> permanent decrease in milk production
List the 3 types of neoplasms commonly observed in the mammary gland of domestic animals.
Mixed Tumors --> benign or malignant, firm, spherical circumscibed, often multiple; Histopath: epithelial and myoepithelial neoplaasa that may form bone, cartilage, myxomatous or fibrous stroma

Adenomas

Carcinoma/Adenocarcinoma --> simple and comples types, white, firm, poorly circumscribed, may be ulcerated, frequently metastese to lymph nodes, lungs etc. Adenocarcinoma is most frequently mammary tumor in cats; Histopathology- pleomorphic epithelial cells, abundant mitoses, local and vascular invasion