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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Type 1 hyperaensitivity – IgE mediated
Anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, urticaria, angioedema
Type 2 antibody dependent cytotoxic
Hemolytic anemia eg, Rh incompatibility
Type 3 immune complex mediated (Arthus rxn)
Serum sickness
Type 4 delayed type hypersensitivity
Contact dermatitis
Tissue transplant rejection is a
Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction
Most common immunodeficiency is
Ab deficiency – decreases IgA production by B cells
Di Georges Syndrome is a
Congenital T cell deficiency
Alternative complement pathway is activated by
Bacterial endotoxins (binds C3)
Classical complement pathway is activated by
Ag/ab complexes (binds C1)
Interferon gamma (INFg) is a lymphokine that
increases the effectiveness of macrophages and NK cells
Complement also has a chemotactic function to
Attract phagocytes to the area of infection
Kleinfelter’s – male with female characteristics
Turner’s – female with no 2o female characteristics
Triple female – mental retardation
Double male
A carcinogenic toxin found in peanut butter is
Aflatoxin (a mycotoxin)
Benign tumors tend to expand
Malignant tumors tend to be invasive
Erysipelas is an acute inflammation of the skin
Caused by S. pyogenes – occurs on cheeks
Decubitus ulcers (bed sores or pressure sores)
Caused by prolonged pressure over bony protuberances
Tinea cruris
Jock itch
In lead poisoning you see
Marked basophilic stippling in RBC
Anemia of Myxedema (low thyroid function px)
Macrocytic, normochromic
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Chronic hemolytic anemia, hemoglobin-emia and –uria
Cells in Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia carry the
Philadelphia chromosome
Chronic infx by B cell antigens induce
Lymph node follicular hyperplasia
Chronic infx by T cell antigens induce
Lymph node paracortical lymphoid hyperplasia
Hodgkin’s Diseases is characterized by
Reed-sternberg giant cells
Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is
Mostly of B-cell origin
Emphysema is characterized by an Increase in…
the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole
Tuberculosis infection can be seen as
Ghon’s tubercles in a lung X-ray
Mesothelioma is a primary lung tumor arising from
The surface lining of the pleura – association with asbestos
Goodpasture’s syndrome is associated with
Necrotizing hemorrhagic interstitial pneumonitis and proliferative glomerulonephritis
Sarcoidosis is characterized by
Noncaseating granulomas located primarily in the lung
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma)
Gastrin secreting tumor in the pancreas – sever PUD
Gastric ulcer
Due to decreased tissue resistance to acid
Stromal ulcer
Vomiting blood, anemia and occult blood in stool
Regional enteritis usually involves the
Ilium – right quadrant pain
Ulcerative colitis is characterized by
Blood stool with no pathogenic organisms
Granulomatous colitis (Chron’s Disease)
Transmural colitis
In Cirrhosis there is progressive injury of the liver and
The hepatic portal vein is diverted around the liver
Biliary disease in HIV patients is commonly caused by
Cryptosporidium (Cryptosporidial cholangitis)
Pancreastic insufficiency leads to
Steatorrhea due to the lack of lipase
A treatment of CHF is
Digitalis which raises CO
Sulfonylureas are drugs that
Stimulate insulin secretion from Beta cells
Clinical manifestations of hypocalcemia are
Primarily neurologic – may also cause cataracts
Hyperpitutarism leads to an
Overproduction of growth hormone
In hypopitutarism the
Gonadotropins are lost first, then GH, then TSH and ACTH
Cushing’s disease (hypercorticism)
Increased glucocorticoids – abnormal steroid hormone production by the adrenal gland – over production of ACTH by pituitary – fat redistribution
Addison’s disease (hypocorticism)
Deficiency in steroid production by the adrenal cortex – excess pigmentation of skin – Low Na and High K – low BP
Tumor of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla that secrete catecholamines – causes hypertension – px feel a sense of impending doom
A classic migraine involves
Visual aura – common migraine has no aura
Cluster headaches can be associated with
Alcohol – signs are tearing, photophobia, nasal congestion
Muscular atrophy (wasting away) is due to a
Denervation of the muscle
Muscular dystrophies are a group if inherited disorders
Muscle weakness without pain or cramping
Tay Sachs disease is a gangliosidosis disease
AR – ganglion cell destruction, glial proliferation and myelin degeneration – cherry red spot on macula
The most common cause of chronic renal failure is
Diabetes mellitus (then HTN and glomerulonephritis)
Preeclampsia-Eclampsia of pregnancy is results in
Hemorrhage, seizures, renal failure, DIC and death
Marasmus is a
Continued restriction of dietary energy and protein
Kwashiorkor is a quantitative and qualitative deficiency
Of protein – energy intake may be adequate
Rickets is caused by a deficiency of
Vit D and a failure of the small intestine to absorb Ca++
Adult counterpart to rickets
Scurvy occurs when a lack of
Ascorbic acid results in a CT disturbance – bleeding gums
Beriberi is the result if a deficiency of
Pellagra is the disease of the 3 Ds
Dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia – may result from malabsorption syndrome, alcoholism or low protein diets
Thiamin deficiency can cause
Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome, Beriberi and heart disease
In alcoholism Vitamin C def. occurs when consumption
Exceeds 30% of the total caloric intake
Vitamin E and selenium are
Antioxidants – def. causes RBC death and neuro problems
Vitamin C deficiency causes a
Failure in wound healing due to the CT disturbances
Thiamin is involved in a stage of
Carbohydrate breakdown
The Pellagra preventing vitamin is
Niacin (nicotinic acid)
Anticonvulsant medications reduced serum levels of
Pantothenic acid is a
Constituent of coenzyme A
Vitamin K is necessary for the formation of
Prothrombin in the liver and clotting factors VII, IX, X
Cobalt is a
Constituent of vitamin B12
Spastic cerebral palsy
70% of CP cases – upper motor neuron spacticity – scissors gait and toe walking
Athetoid/dyskinetic cerebral palsy
20% of CP cases – movements related to emotional tension – slow, writhing and involuntary movements
Ataxic cerebral palsy
10% of CP cases – damage in the cerebellum – weakness, incoordination, wide based gait, problems with fine mvmts
The most common CP cases are
Mixed – spastic with athetosis
Withdrawal symptoms for cocaine and opiates are
Irritability. Hypertonicity, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, convulsions and hyperventilation
Withdrawal symptoms of barbiturates
Convulsions, irritability and fussiness