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28 Cards in this Set

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Are systemic mycoses caused by yeasts or molds?
both
What 4 Yeasts cause systemic mycoses?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Geotrichum
Candida
Torulopsis
What 3 molds cause systemic mycoses?
-Nocardia
-Aspergillus fumigatus
-Zygomycetes (rhiz/mucor/absdia)
which species mostly causes aspergillosis?
Aspergillus fumigatus
What type of disease does Aspergillus fumigatus cause? Where does it come from?
inhaled pulmonary disease.
from spores in the soil
What does Nocardia cause?
pulmonary pneumonia
What species cause Zygomycosis?
Z. rhizopus
Z. mucor
Z. absidia
What in general are the Classical fungal systemic mycoses?
Dimorphic fungi
what are the 4 dimorphic fungi that cause systemic mycoses?
Histoplasma capsulatum
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Coccidioides immitis
What should you always think when you see a fungus on a plate?
CAUTION!! very very contagious if in the mycelial phase.

flood mold w/ sterile saline to prevent airborne pathogen
what causes histoplasmosis?
histoplasma capsulatum
how is histoplasmosis transmitted?
by the inhalation of bird droppings
what is the pathology of histoplasmosis?
it lives in macrophages.
-Causes a lung infection similar to TB.
May disseminate to liver/spleen
What is the morphology of H. capsulatum at
-25 deg. C?
-37 deg. C?
Mycelial - Tuberculate macroconidia (resembls TB too)

Yeast - cells; insignificant
What causes N. American Blastomycosis?
Blastomyces dermatitidis
what is n. american blastomycosis?
an upper respiratory disease that can disseminate to the skin or bone.
how is n. american blastomycosis transmitted?
by the inhalation of soil
What is the morphology of B. dermatitidis?
-25
-37
25: nondiagnostic microconidia.
37: BROADBASE BUDDING - thick walled cells.
what causes south american blastomycosis?
paracoccidioides brasiliensis
what is s. american blastomycosis?
2 symptoms:
an infection of mucus membranes that may disseminate to the internal organs/lungs.

mouth lesions
nose lesions
how is Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis transmitted?
via the soil
what is the diagnostic morphology of paracoccidiodes brasiliensis?
what is the morphology of the other phase?
-Multiple budding off very thick walled cells at 37 degrees

-Chlamydoconidia at 25
what causes valley fever?
in whom is it found?
san joaquin valley fever is caused by Coccidiodes immitis.

dark skinned people - it disseminates to the CNS
How is Coccidioides immitis transmitted?
What is the pathology of Coccidiomycosis?
transmit via inhalation in dry, arid soil.

starts as a lung infection that disseminates to the skin, possibly CNS in dark people
Valley fever is endemic in what region?
Southwest.
What is the diagnostic morphology of Coccidioides immitis?

special growth feature?
barrel-shaped arthrospores at 25'C;

Yeast phase only grows in vivo; sporangium seen here.
What are cells of Coccidioides immitis like in the yeast phase?
filled with spores - sporangia
What are 3 antibacterials used to treat systemic mycoses?
1. Amphotericin B
2. 5-Fluorocytosine
3. Ketoconazole