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61 Cards in this Set

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Antihistamines
-use first day or two of cold.
-blocks body's histamine receptor sites, decreasing the drip.
S/A: drowsy, tx insomnia
-ex. diphenhydramine/Benadryl, Promethazine/Phenergan
*A'hst
Decongestants and pathophys
-shrink bl ves in the mucous membranes.
-ex: pseudoephedrine/Sudafed (oral).
& oxymetazoline/Afrin (nasal spray)
These 2 are called adrenergic decong. bc they stimulate the fright-flight-fight response in the body. Why?It causes the hormone, epinephrine/Adrenalin to be transported throught the blood from the adrenal glands out into the body.
-shrinks vessels, enlarges the air passages=easier breathing.
-S/A: insomnia, nervousness etc, incr BP
-the nasal spray, no SA, can cause "rebound" nasal cong., use spar
*ANOM
Expectorant
Guaifenesin/Robitussin
-does not suppress coughs, but makes them more prod, thinning mucous.
-S/A: stom irrat
-drink 10, 8oz gl liq in 24 hr
-use vaporizer, & move
*A'tsEx
Cough Suppressants
(non-opiate)
Antitussive
dextromethorphan, Used for hacking, non-prod cough
*AtsEx
1. analgesic
2. antipyretic
3. Reye's syndrome
1. relieve pain.
2. lower body temp
3. aspirin related rare, acute, life-threatening condition children/adolescents w/viral infectn, such as chckn pox, flu.
*CNS
Aspirin
-analgesic-antipyretic, & anti-inflam.
-decr. inflam. thins bl by suprressing a body substance, prostaglandin which also causes stomach to secret thick mucus , causes stom upset.
*CNS
1. two parts of NS
2. two parts of c.
3. 2 parts of p.
4. under a.
1. central & peripheral
2. (CNS)brain, spinal cord
3. (Peripheral)autonomic & somatic
4. Parasympathetic: (Cholinergic) ACh and Sympathetic (Adrenergic)
* ANOM
What system is the feed & breed?
parasymp

*ANOM
What system is the fright, flight, and fight?
sympathetic
*ANOM
1. Alpha 1?
2. Alpha 2 (a blocker)
1.Autonomic, constricts blood vessels, dilates eyes.
2. dilates bronchioles in lungs
*ANOM
Autonomic NS:
1. symp/adrenergic PRE-ganglionic NT?
2. POST-ganglionic NT?
1. ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)

2. at the junction w/organ is NOREPINEPHRINE (NE)

*SEE diagrams for unit 5
*ANOM
Somatic NS:
1. What mvmt?
2. NT at junction w/muscle?
1. voluntary & reflex, no ganglia
2. ACETYLCHOLINE
*ANOM
Somatic NS:
Catecholamines (Monamines)
1. 2 parts?
2. NT for those 2 parts?
3. two types of receptors?
1. central (brain), and peripheral (body)
2. central: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine
3. peripheral: Norepinephrine at post ganglionic sites, Epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
*ANOM
1.Alpha NT?
2. Alpha 1 stimulation CAUSES?
3. Agonist drugs:
4. Antagonist drug:
1.Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
2. constricts periph. vessels in skin, kidney, raise BP in heart & brain. nasal, dilate eyes.
3. epin./Adrenalin, oxymetazoline/Afrin, &
pseudoephedrine/Sudafed
4.terazosin/Hytrin
*ANOM
1.alpha 2 BLOCKS actions?
2. Agonist drug for alpha 2?
1. Inhibits further release of norepin. at nerve terminal, dilating periph bl vessels to lower BP.
2. clonidine/catapres, an "alpha 2 stimulator", hypotensive
*ANOM
Clonidine/Catapres
Clonidine/Catapres acts in the medulla of the brain to stimulate alpha2-receptors that inhibit sympathetic vasomotor centers. (The action is comparable to "stimulating" a car's brakes to "inhibit" its motion.) Clonidine/Catapres causes sedation, a central (brain) action. It does not interfere with fine control of peripheral vessels, a peripheral action, so does not cause orthostatic hypotension.
*ANOM
Serotonin (SE) action?
2. serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug?
3. Med that blocks reuptake of NE and SE?
4. drug that increases reuptake of NE, and SE?
5. Med that blocks receptors for dopamine and SE , treat schizophr.
6. med that is a selective serotonin agonist to treat migraines?
found in platelets, intestine, and brain.
Strong vasoconstrictor, stimulates intestinal sm muscle contraction.
2. fluoxetine/Prozac
3. risperidone?Risperdal blocks receptros for doapamine and SE to treat schizophr.
4. LITHIUM to treat mania
5. risperidone/Risperdal
6. sumatriptan/Imitrex

*ANOM
drugs w/ a narrow therapeutic index?
-examples (2)
drugs that have a therapeutic level that is only slightly below the toxic level.
-digoxin/Lanoxin, warfarin/Coumadin

*DRUG INFO
Serum half life?

How many half-lives before a drug reaches a steady state?
the time required for the blood concentration of a drug to decrease by 50%.
-4 or 5

*DRUG INFO
Receptor Theory of Drug Action?
Explains how a med such as a pain pill is able to go to a certain place in the body where you have pain and lessen the pain in that spot. The body chem's that cause the pain are affecting certain cell receptors. The pain med goes to those receptors and is able to affect them in such a way as to lessen the pain the chemistry of drug design is complex.
*DRUG INFO
1. What is an important NT in the brain and is the NT of the cholinergic part of the autonomic NS?
2. What is the precursor of Norep & Epin?
3.What are Norep & Epin categorized under
4. What are catecholamines, and what do they do?
1. Acetylcholine
2. Dopamine, a catecholamine.
3. Catecholamines
4. They are neurotransmitters (NT) that stimulate nor & epi.
*ANOM
Receptors:
1. Up-regulation
2. Down-regulation
3. What does this do?
Receptors are constantly being created & broken down. 1. When there is INACTIVITY at the synapse, the receptors INCREASE in number thus,UP-reg.
2. With OVER activity at the synapse, they DECREASE in number and activity, thus DOWN-reg.
3. Readjust abnormally stimulated or depressed nerve function toward normal.

*ANOM
Receptors:
1. Up-regulation
2. Down-regulation
3. What does this do?
Receptors are constantly being created & broken down. 1. When there is INACTIVITY at the synapse, the receptors INCREASE in number thus,UP-reg.
2. With OVER activity at the synapse, they DECREASE in number and activity, thus DOWN-reg.
3. Readjust abnormally stimulated or depressed nerve function toward normal.

*ANOM
1. hypothalamus
2. pituitary
3. cerebral cortex
1. center for autonomic motor control and secretion of releasing hormones for all the hormones controlled by the pituitary. Also controls water balance, body temperature, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, GI motility, hunger and thirst.
2. the master gland
3. controls all conscious processes: learning memory, reasoning, speaking, sensory perception and movement.
*ANOM
1. COX 1
2. COX 2
3. Side effects of Aspirin and other NSAIDS
1. prostaglandins protect the stom by increasing mucu that protects the stom from it's own acid, and decrease gastric acid secretion.
2. prostaglandins assoc. with pain & inflamm.
3. Inhibition of COX 1 & COX 2. Stom. irratation
*CNS
1. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia
2. drug used and side effects
1.excess dopamine in cerebral cortex cause the brain stimulation result in hallucinations and delusions.
2. chlorpromazine/Thorazine, but dopamine in the basal ganglia necessary for control of fine motor mvmts, therefore, the thorazine, which decreases dopamine in brain, also effects the basal ganglia resulting in
"pseudoparkinsomism": tremors, slow shuffle, masklike faces, muscle rigidity, drooling (cholinergic sx)
*CNS
1.What is given to help w/side effects of schiz. meds
2. What other med is given that has less side effects?
1. benztropine/Cogentin helps to control the extra pyramidal symptoms of pseudoparkinsonism
2. risperidone/Risperdal
*CNS
1. List 2 extrapyramidal movement disorders
2. Explain the second one.
1.psudoparkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia
2. more common in older women, irreversible side effect of prolonged use such as Thorazine. Char by facial grimacing, tongue protruding and lip smacking, and writhing mvmts of upper extremities.
*CNS
How does promethazine/phenergan relieves N & V?
1. blocks the dopamine receptors in the CTZ (chemoreceptor trigger zone)
*CNS
1. Which drug is specifically helpful for homeless schizophrenics?
2. Why?
1. The decanoate form of haloperidol/Haldol and fluphenazine/Prolixin
2. very long lasting forms, given by injection, can control symptoms for 3-4 wks.
*CNS
Are antipsychotics addicting?
No, IM's for flare ups, orals for 5 years to a lifetime.
*CNS
define bipolar disorder
depression alternating with mania
*CNS
name 2 major monoamine NT that are impor factors in depression
Norepinephrine and serotonin.

*CNS
What do these NT do?
Nor acts as a stimulant and serotonin helps regulate mood, sleep, appetite, energy level, mental and psychological functioning.
*CNS
state the neurological malfunction related to mania
excess of norep, a stimulating hormone and a deficiency of GABA, an inhibiting hormone
*CNS
1. commonalities of all antidepressants
2. one difference?
1. all oral, must be taken for 2-4 wks before work, all metabolized by the P450 enzymres
2. dif side effects
*CNS
2 other uses for antidep.
anxiety, enuresis, and neuropathic pain
*CNS
1. amitriptyline/Elavil action and side effects
2. fluoxetine/Prozac action & side effects
1. potentiates action of norepinephrine and serotonin. SA sedation, orthostatic hypotension, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Anticholinergic SA are blurred vision, dry mouth, constip, urinary retention and weight gain. oral take at bed time. ECG before beginning med.
2. reuptake of serotonin. SA N & V, diarrhea, wt loss, sex. dysfunction, CNS stimulation. Oral, morning, or noon.
*CNS
bupropion/Wellbutrin
1. Advantages
2. Disadv.
1. does not cause cardiac probs, orthost. hypotnsn, sxl dysfnctn
2. Can cause seizures, anxiety, and anticholinergic side effects.
*CNS
Lithium used for?
1. disadv.
for manic phase of bipolar depression
1. narrow therapeutic index, a decrease in SALT can cause toxicity.
*CNS
1. Lithium precautions:
2. Overdose signs
3. toxic level
1.take w/food, don't increase, decrease salt intake, drink 8 gl water daily, prevent excess sweating, check lithium bl levels
2. V, diar, unsteady gait, weakness, drowsiness to death.
3. 2.5 mEq/L or higher
*CNS
1. hypothalamus do?
2. Pituitary?
3. target organs
1. master of the master gland, the pituitary. Produces releasing factors that cause the
2. pituitary to send it's hormones to the pituitary
3. the pit. sends messages to the glands in the body to cause them to release hormones into the blood stream.
*Hrmn
hyperadrenocorticism
drawing of women
*Hrmn
1. Addison's disease
2. characteristics
3. treatment
1. when adrenal cortex can't produce corticosteroids.
-both glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol), and mineralcorticoids (adosterone) are deficient or absent.
2. bronzing, weakness, dehydration, weight loss and emotional distress. Low blood sodium & glucose, incrsd level of potassium.
3. replace the lost adrenal hormones: glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and adrenal genital corticoids.
* Hrmn
1. Cushing's syndrome results from?
2. Characteristics
3. treatment
1. an excess or cortisol by the adrenal cortex, usu from a pit. turmor or exogenous glucocorticoids.
2. picture
3. removal of turmor and replacement hormones or decreasing the dose of cortisone, if not possible, treat side effects.
*Hrmn
How do corticosteroids help a pt
-w/severe rctn to drug,
-seasonal allergy,
-asthma or
-arthritis?
decrease the body's reaction to the allergic rxn,
-in asthma, cortisone decreases the inflammatn in bronchioles, incrsg airway.
-arthritis cortisone decreases the inflam and swell'g in joints, decrsg pain and loss of function
*Hrmn
hypothroidism
1. symptoms
2. treatment
1.body processes are slowed. Pt is lethargic, gains wt, sensitive to cold, this lusterless hair
2. synthetic thyroid hormone low dose, slowly increased to a normal (euthyroid) level.
*Hrmn
hyperthyroidism
1. symptoms
2. treatment
1. body processes are increased. Pt. constantly moving, difficult to rest, heart rate is high, pt thin, poor tolerance for heat.
2. remove the thyroid, surgically or w/radioactive iodine or propylthiouracil and then give thyroid till the pt reaches a euthryoid state.
*Hrmn
How are the following used in thyroid disorders?
-propranolol/Inderal
-given to slow heart rate in hyperthyroidism
*Hrmn
1. what does vitamin D do?
2. what does alendronate/Fosamax do?
1. it is a fat soluble vitamin obtained from food and sunshine. It raises blood calcium levels and promones bone formation.
2. finds to bone and inhibits calcium resorptn from bone for osteopor.
*Uncls
1. directions for Fosamax?
2. why
1. Take morning w/full glass water, NPO for 30 minutes, while remaining UPRIGHT. Then eat bkfst.
2. can be very irratating to esophagus and stom.
*Uncls
bupropion/Wellbutrin
1. Advantages
2. Disadv.
1. does not cause cardiac probs, orthost. hypotnsn, sxl dysfnctn
2. Can cause seizures, anxiety, and anticholinergic side effects.
*CNS
Lithium used for?
1. disadv.
for manic phase of bipolar depression
1. narrow therapeutic index, a decrease in SALT can cause toxicity.
*CNS
1. Lithium precautions:
2. Overdose signs
3. toxic level
1.take w/food, don't increase, decrease salt intake, drink 8 gl water daily, prevent excess sweating, check lithium bl levels
2. V, diar, unsteady gait, weakness, drowsiness to death.
3. 2.5 mEq/L or higher
*CNS
1. AED
2. seizure, convulsion and tonic-clonic movemnts
1. antiepileptic drugs
2. all the same thing
*CNS
What kind of meds are used for status epilepticus?
(2 TYPES)
short acting benzodiazdpine such as diazepam/Valium or lorazepam/Ativan administered by IV
*CNS
Describe NT changes and the brain structures involved in Parkinson's disease
Dopamine is decreased. It is produced by the substantia nigra (black substance in the base of the brain and these cells are damaged or destroyed. Dopamine mediator of fine motor mvmts controlled by the basal ganglia
*Uncls
1. What do they do?
2. list 2 major drugs used in Parkinson's disease, and the symptoms they affect.
1. dopaminergic drugs; increase dopamine in the brain
2.
-Levodopa is the major drug used to treat this disease. The dopamine helps to relieve the tremor, slow mvmt, and the rigidity.
- Anticholinergic drugs such as benztropine/Cogentin are used in the early stages of Parkinson's disease to decrease spasticity, tremors, salivation, and sweating.

*CNS
levodopa action
-take w/meals
-reaches brain, converted to dopamine
-major drug used to treat Parkinson's
*Uncls
why is carbidopa added to levodopa in Sinemet?
-enzymes in peripheral tissues extensively metabolize levodopa.
-Carbidopa inhibits these enzymes and decreases the metabolism of levodopa , making it avail to brain.
*Uncls
Signs of Parkinson's disease:
pill rolling tremor at rest, tremor stops when using hand or sleep.
-excessive salivation, sweating, constipation & depressn.
-intellect remains until late stages
*Uncls