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130 Cards in this Set

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Name 3 causes for low farrowing rates with noninfectious problems in a breeding herd.
1. Low conception rates (21 day returns to estrus after mating; irregular retuns to estrus after mating)
2. Noninfectious abortion
3. Pseudopregnancy
In which days of pregnancy does 1ry maternal recognition occur?
10-15 dd
In which days of Pregnancy do Pseudopregnancy or Irregular Returns (Abortion) occur?
15-35 dd
When does mineralization of the fetus occur and what is the importance of this?
35-40 dd
Fetus will not reabsorb if abortion occurs; mummification will occur.
_________rates are important for farrowing rates.
Conception
When do mummifications/abortions and stillbirths occur?
Mummies/Abortion: after 40 dd
Stillbirths: 111d
Name two main causes of infertility that lead to low farrowing rates.
Conception Failure
Pregnancy Failure
What is the #1 cause of Pregnancy Failure? Conception Failure?
Pregnancy Failure: Infectious causes
Conception Failure: Management
What is the average and ideal farrowing rate?
80% (ideal: 90%)
Name some solutions to deal with Low Farrowing Rates.
1. Improve estrus detection techniques.
2. Improve breeding program.
3. Overbreed (increase # of animals)
4. Blame infectious agents.
What is the definition of irregular return to estrus?
Return to estrus after mating in 26-37 dd.
If you have low farrowing rates in your farm, you first need to determine if your decrease in rates are due to problems with _______ or ________.
Infertility or High female turnover (culling).
Reproductive problems, such as increased mummies/stillborns or abortions, often are indicative of ________ dz's.
Infectious
Name some noninfectious factors influencing a decrease in conception rates with regular returns to estrus.
1. Parity (gilts and primiparous)
2. Season (summer)
3. Boar use (overuse and under use)
4. AI (semen preparation)
5. Environment (High temp)
6. Heat detection/Breeding Procedures
7. Housing (gestation crates: "bed rest").
What are some corrective procedures for low conception rates with regular returns to estrus?
1. Improve breeding procedures and timing of matings.
2. Optimize boar exposure
3. Evaluate fertility of boars.
4. Follow guidelines for boar usage or semen collection.
Name some factors influencing irregular returns to estrus
1. Parity (lower parity animals)
2. Season (summer)
3. Interval from breeding until return to estrus.
4. Infectious agents
5. Mycotoxins (zearalenone toxicity)
What are some ways to evaluate irregular returns to estrus?
1. Determine when returns are actually occurring (detailed records).
2. US pregnancy testing
3. Slaughterhouse check ( repro tracts
When you have irregular returns to estrus in your farm what general category of problems should you consider?
NON-INFECTIOUS
What is known as Autumn Abortion Syndrome (AAS)?
Non-infectious abortion during late summer-early fall (Sep-Oct).
In which stages of abortions does AAS occur?
Name some CS and infectious agents.
Any stage of pregnancy
No CS
Infectious agents (Leptospirosis; Mice: Seasonal)
What is the definition of a Not-In-Pig (NIP) Sow?
Is a sow that fails to farrow after an assumed normal gestation.
What is the definition of Pseudopregnancy?
Sows that return to estrus after 50 (?) days of presumed gestation.
Name some infectious agents and non-infectious causes of Pseudopregnancy.
Infectious: Porcine Parvovirus (PPV); PRRS
Non-infectious: Heat stress; Regrouping sows after breeding; Zearalenone toxicity
In which seasons are Pseudopregnancies and NIP more common?
late fall-early winter
What is considered a normal number of stillbirths in a litter?
1
When we think about noninfectious causes of stillbirths, we should think....
EXTREMES!!
Which two types of sows have substantially higher stillbirth rates?
Gilts
High parity sows
Room temperatures exceeding______ degrees have been associated w/ elevated stillbirth rates.
80F
What is the normal gestation length of a sow?
~115 dd
Sows w/ which two gestation lengths have increased numbers of stillborn pigs?
-prolonged gestations (>117dd)
-relatively early (<112 dd)
Sows with ______farrowing durations have higher stillbirth rates.
Prolonged (>8hrs)
What is the minimum amount of minutes that you should wait before intervening during the farrowing process?
15 min
What size of piglets are more likely to be stillborn?
-Large pigs (>4 lb)
-Small pigs (<2.25lb)
Sows in which BC have higher stillbirth rates?
-over-conditioned
-thin sows
Which nutritional supplements MAY decrease stillbirth rates?
-Choline
-Blended animal fat
What nutritional deficiency may be associated w/ prolonged farrowings and increased stillbirth rates?
Calcium (hypocalcemia)
Which noxious gass can cause cherry red blood and increase stillbirths in sows?
Carbon monoxide
What percentage of a breeding group with abnormal vulvar discharges is considered a problem?
5-10%
Urogenital infections are typically observed as a __________ _________ discharge.
purulent vulvar discharge
Which urinary tract pathologic discharge is common in young castrated males?
urolithiasis
T/F It is common to note the presence of fresh blood on the vulva of sows or gilts.
True
A purulent vulvar discharge at ___to __dd after breeding typically is indicative of a uterine infection.
14-20dd
Sows bred ____ during estrus are more ssuceptible to post-breeding purulent discharges.
late (ofter 3rd mating)
Name the specific pathogen and tx for post-breeding purulent discharges in sows.
No specific pathogen nor tx.
What is the most common option (management wise) for an animal w/ a purulent discharge at 14-20 dd after breeding?
Cull them (low prognosis)
What percentage of gilts have a dorsoventral band?
50%
Subclinical manifestations are (common/uncommon) with urinary tract infections in sows.
Common
(urinalysis needed for detection most of the time)
Name some CS for urinary tract infections as the infection progresses.
-abnormal urination
-stranguria
-abnormal vulvar discharge (during final phase of urination)
-hematuria
-inappetance
-pyrexia
What is the normal specific gravity of a sow?
<1.010
Prevalance of urinary tract infections

Sows in crates with drinkers have the _______(highest/lowest) prevalence; sows in large lots have the _________ (hightest/lowest) prevalence.
Crates-lowest
Large lots-highest
Name tx plan for UTI
-unrestricted access to water
-broad spectrum Ab's (tetracycline; ampicillin)
-aspirin/banamine (decrease body temp)
Stillbirths tend to increase by what percentage when encountered with infectious reproductive dz's?
15% or all of the litter
Clinical problems w/ infectious reproductive dz's are limited to how many pregnancies for all the sows in the herd?
A single pregnancy (get immunity afterwards)
What would cause a recurrence of infectious reproductive dz's?
-naive animals introduced into the herd
-herd loses immunity
-overwhelming re-exposure to the agent
If doing a diagnostic test on a piglet, what would you look for (Ab/Ag) in a piglet:
<70 dd
>70 dd
Ag (<70 dd)
Ab (>70dd)
What kind of virus is PRRSV?
Which serotype is more virulent?
Arterivirus- RNA virus
US (Lelystad-European is less virulent)
Name methods of transmission for PRRSV from most important to less.
-Pig-pig
-Mechanical vectors
-Aerosol
-Semen
Which stages of pregnancy does PRRSV affect?
Middle-Last trimester
You own a farm of breeding sows and you notice that they have been off feed, markedly depressed and febrile for a couple of days. Suddenly your sows that are in their 80th day of gestation start aborting... which infectious dz are you suspicious it could be?
PRRSV
Leptospirosis
What is a common CS for piglets with PRRSV soon after birth?
-"Thumping" or labored breathing.
-Are usually a result of 2ry bacterial infections.
-Preweaning mortality ranges from 15-50%.
If a PRRSV attack re-occurs, what CS would you see in sows and fetuses that have current immunity.
Sows- no CS
Fetuses- still susceptible (abortions, stillbirths, mummies, weak-born piglets)
What are some CS for "Acute" PRRS?
Sow illness and death in vx or previously infected herds.
What pathological findings might you encounter in a sow that has just aborted due to PRRSV?
-placentitis
-umbilical cord vasculitis
Which tissues might you want to sample from a newborn piglet that was born viremic due to PRRSV? What might you test for (Ab/Ag)?
-thymus
-spleen
-l.n.'s
-Ag
What pathological findings might you encounter in a post-natal pig with PRRSV?
-interstitial viral penumonia
-enlarged l.n.'s
PRRSV is identified almost exclusively in which cells?
MP's
Name which serology tests might you use to diagnose PRRSV?
-ELISA
-SN
-immunofluorescent Ab assay
Virus isolation of PRRSV is best performed in which tissues?
-serum
-tonsils
-bronchiolar lavage MP's
Which is one of the most sensitive tests for PRRSV?
Immunohistochemistry of lung tissue.
Name the best way to control preweaning mortality with PRRSV?
Control pre-weaning mortality
-prevent cross-fostering
-foster only to functional teats
-All in All out
-euthanize moribund and non-responsive piglets
Name some prevention methods for PRRSV.
-isolate all new breeding stock for 60dd
-MLVx (not in naive herds)
-do not continously add PRRSV-free gilts to breeding herd
-expose all breeding animals during outbreak
What CS will you NOT see with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV)?
-diarrhea
-abortions
Which animals are usually affected by PPV?
Gilts litters
(infection and damage only of fetus)
What does SMEDI stand for?
S- stillbirths
M- mummies
E- embryonic
D- death
I- infertility
What diagnostic test and samples would you use to diagnose PPV in mummies <70 dd?
Fluorescent Ab test (test for Ag)
-lung
-hemagglutination of guinea pig RBCs by lung and viscera homogenates
What diagnostic test and samples would you use to diagnose PPV in mummies >70 dd or stillbirths?
-test for Ab
-serum
-CSF
-thoracic fluids
Name Tx and Prevention methods for PPV.
-no Tx
-Vx of gilts 2x b4 mating
What is the most important way of transmission w PRV?
pig to pig transmission
Pseudorabies
Which age groups can be affected?
Which one shows more severe CS?
-All age groups
-suckling piglets
Are abortions and fetal mummifications very common with PRV?
Not really (less than 10% of cases)
Pseudorabies (PRV) can cause fatal infection of all mammals except________
primates
Which CS become more maked and which ones nearly disappear as the age of the pig increases?
-Respiratory signs become more marked
-CNS signs disappear
What CS would you see in a sow w Pseudorabies (PRV)?
-pyrexia
-rhinitis
-abortions
Name some diagnostic tests for Pseudorabies.
-Virus isolation (tonsil or lung)
-Fluorescent Ab testing (tonsil or brain)
-ELISA
Name the two most important bacterial agents involved in swine reproductive dz.
-Leptospirosis
-Brucella suis
Leptospirosis and Brucella suis are both _________ dz's
ZOONOTIC
Explain the transmission of Leptospirosis
-via urine contaminated water (racoons, skunks, rodents)
Explain the pathogenesis and CS of leptospirosis
-Pathogenesis (fetal infection after leptospiremia of sow)
-CS Sow (late-terminal abortions)
-CS piglets (weak-born, squealing or stillborn, curled up claws)
Name some Diagnostic tests for Leptospirosis.
-Isolation or darkfield microscopy (fetus stomach contents)
-Paired serology (take blood samples at time of abortions)
Tx and Prevention for Leptospirosis
Tx
-Tetracycline (400 gm/ton)
-Revaccinate in outbreak
Prevention
-secure water and feed sources
-vx b4 mating
As opposed to Leptospirosis, Brucella suis can occur when during gestation?
ANY time (vs. late gestation)
Which two dz's cause late-term abortions?
PRRSV and Lepto
Which two reproductive dz's cause abortions at any time during gestation?
PRV and Brucella
In which dz do we tend to see same size mummies w/in litters and w/in week's farrowing?
PRRSV
In which dz do we see many different sizes of mummies w/in litters and often first sign recognized by producer?
PPV
With which respiratory dz's do we see
-anorexia
-febrile
-depression
PRRSV
PRV
Do we see mummies with Leptospirosis?
No!!
What kind of virus is Swine Influenza?
What type is it?
RNA viurs
Type A
Dry hacking non-productive cough, normal pigs with no depression might make you suspicious of....
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Productive cough and depressed pigs with pyrexia might make you suspicious of......
Swine Influenza
In which season is Influenza more common?
Winter (less common during the summer)
Why is the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase so important in a virus?
It will determine its virulence. (determine which virus we are dealing with)
Swine Influenza
____hemagglutinin
____neuraminidase
15 hemagglutinin
9 neuraminidase
What kind of lung lesions would you see with Swine Influenza?
-Cranioventral to patchy diffuse penumonia
-interlobular edema
-fibrinous exudate in bronchi
What lesions (in other organs besides lungs) might you see with Swine Influenza?
-gastric ulcers
How is the transmission of Swine Influenza?
-pig-pig
-transmitted in semen (14 dd after infection)
-people-pigs
-waterfowl-pigs
-biting flies
Would you make a diagnosis of Swine Influenza by just pathological findings?
No!!
Take formalized and fresh samples of lungs and submit them to a lab
Name some diagnostic tests fro Swine Influenza.
-Rapid tissue test
-Immunohistochemistry
-Sequencing
-Nasal swabs (dead and live animals)
What new measures have been taken to control Swine Influenza?
-nasal swabing during summer time
-isolate specific virus and get it typed
-make vaccines
-Commercial vx's not used as much anymore
-high compliance human vaccination programs
What CS would you see in sows with Swine Influenza?
Abortions (due to high fevers)
Productive cough
Depressed
Would you give Swine Influenza Vx to 3 wk pigs?
No
Vx plan:
-1st dose at nursery (8-9 wks)
-2nd dose at finishing phase
What is the most common pathological lesions seen with APP?
necrotizing pleuropneumonia
-fibrinous pleuritis
-hemorrhage
-lung abscesses
-lungs are adhered to rib cage (causes trim outs; hard to clean during slaughter)
What is the mecanism of dz for APP that causes pigs to become so sick?
produces endotoxins (LPS) and exotoxins (RTX)
The lower the number of the serotype, the more _______ it is.
Severe
What are some CS seen with APP in swine?
Type 1:
-20-40% mortality, coughing, erosions through the blood vessels (cough up blood when about to die)
How would you diagnose APP?
-Hx (acute deaths)
-lung lesions and pleuritis
-CULTURE (ideal diagnostic tech)
What is your differential list when suspecting APP?
-Pasteurella
-Salmonella
-Actinobacillus
-Porcine Respiratory Dz Complex (PRDC)
What control measures would you take with APP?
-RTX based vx
-depopulation (sows: they're your carriers) and repopulate w negative animals
What pathological finding is very common with TB?
caseous lymphadenitis
Infected pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are contagious for only ____ months post infection.
10 mm
What is the common lung lesion for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae?
anterior-ventral consolidation (firm and rubbery)
Which two diagnostic techniques are the standard for diagnosis for Mycoplasma hyopmenumoniae?
-Immunohistochemistry
-Fluorescent Ab
Name some control measures against Mycoplasma.
-Stock negative females
-Repopulation
-Rollovers
-Medicate early weaning (antimicrobials)
-Functional biosecurity
PCV2 ihas been a dz of ______pigs in Europe but the syndrome is predominately associated w/ ________pigs in the US
Europe- nursery pigs
US- older growing pigs
_______exposure is thought to be the common route of spread for PCV2.
Oronasal
PCV2 is present in all ________ and ________ of all infected pigs.
secretions and excretions
Name some gross lesions seen with PCV2.
-lymphadenopathy (bigger l.n.s than PRRS)
-interstitial pneumonia
-wet lungs
-ascites
-thymic atrophy
-R heart enlargement
-enlargement of kidney and spleen
Name some classical CS for PCV2.
-stupor
-growth retardation
-purple discoloration of the skin
How would you diagnose PCV2?
-CS (growth retardation)
-high case mortality rates
-lymphadenopathy (mandibular and inguinal)
-lymphocyte depletion
-presence of viral inclusions in tissue lesions
Name what might be used as a control measure for PCV2.
3 PCV2 vx's (pigs >3 wks)
$$$$$