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36 Cards in this Set

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Ureter;One of the two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.
Urethra; Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Sac that holds the urine
Incision into the ureter and removal of a stone
Peritoneal Dialysis; A method of dialysis for patients with kidney failure in which fluids are pumped into the abdomen resulting in the removal of wastes from the blood; peritoneal dialysis can be done in the home as opposed to hemodialysis which must be done at a hospital or clinic.
Hemodialysis; the use of a machine to clean wastes from the blood after the kidneys have failed. The blood travels through tubes to a dialyzer (DY-uh-LY-zur), a machine that removes wastes and extra fluid. The cleaned blood then goes back into the body.
Blood Urea Nitrogen; A waste product in the blood from the breakdown of protein. The kidneys filter blood and remove urea. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level increases.
Voiding Cystourethrogram; a specific x-ray that examines the urinary tract. A catheter (hollow tube) is placed in the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and the bladder is filled with a liquid dye. X-ray images will be taken as the bladder fills and empties. The images will show if there is any reverse flow of urine into the ureters and kidneys.
Phenylketonuria; A disease in which the enzyme that metabolizes the amino acid phenylalanine is not expressed, resulting in abnormally high levels of phenylalanine. If left untreated, PKU can lead to severe, progressive mental retardation.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy; This is a large machine that generates a powerful shock wave using one of several different technologies. The generator is outside the body but the shock waves are focused at a point where the stones are located.
End-Stage Renal Disease; Stage in kidney disease when treatment, such as dialysis or transplantation, becomes necessary. “End-stage” refers to the end of kidney function. Also called end-stage kidney disease.
Chronic Renal Failure; a slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years, often resulting in total kidney failure or ESRD.
Continous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis; A method of internal dialysis that uses the peritoneal membrane (the membrane that lines the internal body space) within the body to remove wastes and water from the blood, instead of filtering the blood using a haemodialysis machine.
Antidiuretic Hormone; A hormone produced by the pituitary gland that reduces the production of urine in the kidneys and therefore prevents water loss; also called 'vasopressin.'
Kidney Ureters Bladders; Term that refers to x-rays of the abdomen. This is usually the initial study utilized for assessment of many conditions that affect the urinary tract.
Intravenious Pyelogram; a series of x-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein - to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow.
Trans-Urethral Resection of the Prostate; An instrument is inserted, under anaesthetic, along the urethra (urine tube) and removes prostate tissue which may be blocking the flow of urine. It is a common operation for benign enlargement of the prostate, but only occasionally used to treat prostate cancer.
The two muscular tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
Urinary Bladder
one adrenal gland is located near each kidney. Their main function is to produce hormones which control metabolism, fluid balance, and blood pressure. In addition, they produce small amounts of "male" hormones (androgens) and "female" hormones (estrogens and progesterone).
A procedure used to diagnose urinary tract disorders and provide a direct view of the urethra and bladder by inserting a flexible scope into the urethra and then into the bladder.
Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.
A surgically created opening through the lower abdomen into the urinary bladder. A plastic tube inserted into the opening drains urine from the bladder into a plastic collection bag. This relatively simple procedure is done when a person requires an indwelling catheter to drain excess urine from the bladder but cannot, for some reason, have it pass through the urethral opening.
A duct formed by the joining of the seminal vesicles with the vas deferens, through which semen is propelled at the time of ejaculation.
Surgical procedure to drain the kidneys through an opening on the abdomen, thus bypassing the bladder.
Kidney disease characterized by bilateral inflammatory changes in the glomeruli (tufts of capillary loops associated with the nephrons, the functional units of the kidney). The disorder is not caused by infection. It is considered an autoimmune disease.
two pea sized glands on each side of the prostate gland situated below it, forming part of the male reproductive organs and serve to secrete a mucous fluid which is added to semen.
A birth defect in which a boy's urethra, through which urine and semen pass, opens on the underside of the penis rather than at the end. Almost always correctable with surgery.
A surgically created passage from the skin directly into the central collecting space of the kidney. Usually a tube is left in this passage to drain the urine into a bag carried outside the body. This same passage can be enlarged and used for percutaneous procedures on the kidney.
Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with chronic renal failure or some renal tumors. The main types are cadaveric and living donor transplant. In the former, the kidney originates from a deceased person. In the latter, the kidney is being donated by an organ donor.
A gland in the male reproductive system just below the bladder. The prostate surrounds part of the urethra, the canal that empties the bladder, and produces a fluid that forms part of semen.
An X-ray of the pelvis, showing the kidney and associated structures, after injection of a radiopaque dye.
An operation to remove part or all of the prostate. Radical (or total) prostatectomy is the removal of the entire prostate and some of the tissue around it.